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Treatise of The Diseases of Children – Pemell

Treatise of The Diseases of Children – Pemell

De Morbis Puerorum,
or, a
The Diseases of Children;

Their Causes, Signs, Prognosticks, and
Cures, for benefit of such as do not
understand the Latine Tongue, and very use-
ful for all such as are House-keepers,
and have Childen.

With the Contents of the several Chapters, as also an
Alphabetical Table of all the Diseases mentioned herein.

By Robert Pemell,
Practitioner in Physick,
at Cranebrooke in Kent.
May the 29, 1653.

Printed by J. Legass, for Philemon Stephens, at the guilded Lion
in Pauls Church-yard. 1653.

Source: Wikimedia.;_De_morbis_puerorum_Wellcome_L0064656.jpg

The Contents of the Several Chapters

  1. Of Ulcers and sores in childrens heads.
  2. Of Lice.
  3. Of the Scab and Itch.
  4. Of the Falling sicknesse and convulsion.
  5. Of pain in the ears, with inflammation.
  6. Of breeding and coming of Teeth.
  7. Of inflammation of the mouth and throat, with ulcers and sores thereof.
  8. Of Feavers.
  9. Of the small Pox and Measels.
  10. Of watching out of measure and want of rest.
  11. Of fear, starting and terrible Dreams.
  12. Of Rheume, the Cough, and shortnesse of breath.
  13. Of Vomiting, and weaknesse of the stomach.
  14. Of the Consumption, or leannesse, and of the Rickets.
  15. Of the Hicket.
  16. Of Gripings and frettings in the belly.
  17. Of loosenesse and flux of the belly.
  18. Of costivenesse and flopping of the belly.
  19. Of Worms.
  20. Of Ruptures and Burstings.
  21. Of swelling, or coming forth of the Navel.
  22. Of inflammation of the Navel.
  23. Of the swelling of the Cods.
  24. Of falling of the Fundament.
  25. Of the Stone, and difficulty of making water.
  26. Of Pissing in bed.
  27. Of the disease called Saint Anthonies fire, or wilde fire, as also of burning or scalding.
  28. Of fretting, chafing, or galling of the skin in the groines.

The Authour to the Reader.

Kind Reader,

Promise is a debt; in my book of the nature of Simples I did promise to do something more that might be helpful to young Practitioners, as also to the Vulgar; I have therefore taken some pains to write, concerning the diseases of Children, and have handled them methodically, that so it might be more useful and profitable to such as shall Read the same. And because I see my glasse runs apace, and I know not how short my time is, therefore I have made the more hast, and taken the present advantage; yet have I not made it my hoc age, my onely business, but have done it at rapt hours. Whatever I have done I now offer it to thy view, and submit to they Charitable censure, desiring my good will and affection may be accepted.

December 1. 1652.

Thine to serve in what I may.
Robert Pemel Medicus.

Chap. 1
Of Ulcers and sores in Childrens heads.

Children are many times troubled with running sores and ulcers in their head, both when they suck, and when they be weaned.

The cause.

The cause hereof are excrementitious humors thin and sharp, or they proceed from a mixt humour, partly thin and sharp, and partly thick and melancholy and altogether salt and nitrous; from whence these ulcers and sores look sometimes white, sometimes red, sometimes yellow, and sometimes black, alwayes salt and fretting whereby they cause itching, and from thence they are forced often to scratch. Now these humours are gathered together, or produced partly in the womb from the impurity of the mothers blood, whereby the infant is nourished; partly from the vitiousness or corruption of the milk, whereby the infants are nourished either from the mother or nurse.

The signs are Manifest.

These sores and ulcers if they be but gentle and easie are judged to be very healthful for children, because nature expelleth ill and noxious humours from the inward parts to the outward, and if they dry up, many times children fall into fears and other diseases: Hippocrates* faith, that if ulcers or sores arise in the heads of children, or in their ears, or face, or in any other part of their body, they are freed from the falling sickness. These ulcers are many times cured without means, as strength and age increaseth. If they continue long and run much, it is to be feared least these exulcerations pierce to the skul and brain. If these ulcers continue long and grow crusty and black, they are hard to cure. *De morb. sac. fol. 139.

The cure.

Concerning the Cure care must be taken that such things as are cooling and binding be not used. Let the Nurse use a good Dyet, and abstain from all sharp and salt meats, and such as breed vitious or bad juyces; as Onions, Garlick, Leeks, Peese, Beans, Raddish, salt Beef, Porke, &c: If the Nurse have need of purging, give her a purge, of the Electuary called Confectio Hamech, or Diacatholicon; and let her use Burrage, Buglosse, Fumitory, Sorrel, Succo y, &c. Or sirup of any of these. The child if of any bignesse may take the sirups likewise, or half an ounce of Manna, or more according to its age.

A Bath.

First, let the childs head be bathed with a decoction of Mallows, and Barly, or with a decoction of Dock roots, mallows, Celendine the greater, Wormwood, Fenegreek, Cicers, Lupines, Beans, &c. If there be need of greater cleansing, you may boyl the foregoing herbs in wine; or make a Lotion with decoction of Marshmallow roots, made with Urine of the infant alone, or mixt with Barly water. Then anoint the head with oyl of Roses and oyl of bitter Almonds mixed with a little litharge of gold or silver in fine powder; or take of the juyce of Beets and Celendine the greater of each one ounce, Hogsgrease two ounces; boyl them together a while, then being almost cold put in of Brimstone in powder a drachme, make an ointment, of which anoint the parts affected morning and evening. Or wash the head with Sopesuds made strong. If these ulcers eat to the skul, then use hony of Roses mixed with a little spirit of Wine, and afterwards the powder Birthwort and natural Balsam.

Chap. 2
Of Lice breeding in Children.

If persons of years live nastily and do not change often, they soon become lousey. But tis very familiar for Children to breed Lice.

The cause.

They arise from a hot and moist matter which putrifieth in the skin, or pores of the body. Sometimes they are bred by eating of Figs, in grown persons because the ingender bad juyce.

The signs.

The signs are apparent, for the lice are bred both on head and body.

The Prognosticks.

This disease is a foul and filthy disease, and very troublesome, because it causeth a constant scratching, but especially if they breed in the whole body as many times it happeneth. Lice are wont to leave those that are ready to die, and to creep away in heaps, which surely cometh to passe because, that host moist nourishment (which bred them) is wanting, and noysome vapours arise from the party ready to die. If lice be onely in the head, in many it preserves their health, because they consume much excrementitious humours. Lice are engendred in the beginning of the Leprosie, and in the second and third kinds of hectick Feavers. If they breed much and that all over the body, they are not onely very irksome, but sometimes bring death.

The cure.

First, for the prevention of lice, and to hinder the breeding of them, it will be very necessary to keep the child often changed, and to comb often the head, and to avoid all meats of ill juyce. If the child be of any bignesse the body may be purged in this manner.

Take of Sene and Polipodium each of two drachmes, Fumitory one drachme and a half, Cream of Tartar a drach, Licorice and Anniseed, of each a drachme; bruise the Polipodium and Licorice, then infuse or steep them all in half a pint of water on hot embers, and afterwards gently boyl them; strain it, and to the clear add of sirup of Roses one ounce: let the child take every morning two or three spoonfuls fasting, and fast one hour after it, then to take some warm posset-drink or broth. Make a bath as followeth.

A Bath.

Take of Elecampane root bruised two ounces, white Briony root bruised half an ounce, Beets, Mercury, Sopewort, Centory the lessser, of each a handful, Lupines bruised one ounce, Nitre half an ounce; boyl these in water and make a bath for the head, with which let the head be bathed morning and evening warm. After bathing anoint the head once or twice a day (if a strong child twice, if a weak child but once,) with this oyntment following.

An oyntment.

Take of Stavesacre one ounce, Wormwood, Rue, of each half an ounce, Brimstone, and Nitre, of each two drachmes, make all into powder, and with two or three ounces of oyl of Bayes, and one ounce of oyl of Wormwood make an oyntment.

Or take of Brimstone in powder half an ounce, of Stavesacre in powder one ounce, oyl of Wormwood two ounces and a half, vinegar one ounce; make all into an oyntment, and use it as before is shewed.

Or take seawater, or else Brine and strong lee of Ashes, of each a quart, Wormwood a good handful or two; boyl it a while therein, and afterwards was the body or head therewith. Many use stronger oyntments made with Arsenick, or Quicksilver, and white Hellebor, but for young children it is not safe to use them.

This powder following is very good and safe.

A powder good and safe for Lice in the head.

Take of Coculus Indy a quarter of an ounce, white Pepper a drachme; beat them into a grosse powder, and strew it into the heads of children, for it will soon destroy the lice. Or you may dip a comb in strong Mercury water, or water made with Arsenick, and so comb the childs head therewith.

Chap. 3
Of the Scab and Itch.

The Scab and Itch is an infection of the skin, sometimes with crusts or scabs, sometimes dry, sometimes onely in the head, and sometimes in the whole body, and doth much provoke to scratching.

The cause.

These come from the sharpnesse of the milk, or from some salt humour abounding in the body, and sometimes they bring this infection into the world with them.

The signes.

The signes are manifest.


If the Scab or Itch be small and do not hinder sleep, it is the easier cured, but if it do much molest and disquiet the childe in the night, it is the more difficult to cure. If they be of long continuance and have got a habit in the body, they are not easily cured.

The cure.

For the cure of Itch and Scab, many use to give common Treacle, which I do not approve of, but rather advise to use flower of Brimstone morning and evening in milk or Posset drink. Also sirup of Fumitory is good to give often half a spoonful thereof to children of growth.

If the head be scabby, it is usual to anoint with burnt butter, but this many times strikes into the body and makes the child sick. You may anoint with this oyntment following.

An Oyntment.

Take oyl of Roses four ounces, quick Brimstone in powder one ounce, juice of Lemmons two ounces. Rosin three ounces, make all into an oyntment, and anoint the head, face, or body with it; but observe this, that you do not anoint all over where the itch or scab is, but anoint first at one place, and when that is killed, then use it to another place, and so the rest one after another. You may also anoint with the white Camphire oyntment, or with Tarr and Hogs grease boyled together; or you may use a decoction of Tobacco stalks boyled in water and vinegar.

If the Itch or Scab be hot and bruning, then use this oyntment following:

Take white lead and Lytharge of gold in fine powder, of each five drachmes, lee made of the ashes of a vine three drachmes, oyl of Roses an ounce, wax as much; melt the wax and oyl first, then put in the rest keeping it stirring, and last of all add two yolks of eggs, or rather the whites, make an oyntment, and use it.

See more in my book called Help for the Poor, in Itch and Scab, pag. 21, 22, Cap. 23.

Chap. 4
Of the Falling sicknesse and convulsion.

These are diseases very incident to children newly born; and because they are so neer of affinity I shall joyn them together.

The cause.

The falling sicknesse cometh sometimes by consent of the inferior, or lower parts especially of the stomach and bowels, which milk is corrupted in the stomach, or hath an ill quality, which doth often happen when the nurse is of an ill complexion, or from the nurses ill dyet, and to frequent drinking of wine, and so ill vapors arise from the stomach to the brain, and affect the membranes thereof, or worms, the Small Pox and Measels, or Fevers may cause these fits, or primarily it may come from the brain being ill affected. Sometimes it may be Hereditary and come from the Parents; Also vehement pains of the teeth (whereby the brain is drawn into consent) may cause convulsions in children. Moreover sudden fears or beating the child may occasion thse fits. Some will have flegme to be the cause of the Falling sicknesse; but if it were so, then why might not old men (whose brains are flegmatick) have the Falling sicknesse, and Infants as well as old men, be taken with the Apoplexy, which notwithstanding we see by experience doth not happen: Therefore the falling sicknesse doth not proceed from flegme, but rather from an occult and sharp quality, with doth oppresse the membranes of the brain. For although children do abound with flegme, (from whence suffocating rheumes and other diseases be bred,) yet doth not the Falling sicknesse follow except there be some venomous and corrupt vapour joyned therewith.

The signs.

The signs are manifest. But whether it proceed from vitious or corrupt milk, or from worms, the small Pox, or Measels, breeding of teeth, or from fears, the signs of these diseases will manifest. If fear be the cause, the standers by or tenders can evidence the same: Now if none of these be the cause, then it is probable it may arise primarily from the brain.

The Prognosticks.

The Falling sicknesse and convulsion are diseases very horrible to behold, and dangerous in all persons and ages, and doth kill many children that are taken therewith so soon as they be born.

Where these fits happen to young children, ’tis more dangerous then in grown persons, because they can bear and endure the fits better.

The cure.

For the cure of these diseases, something must be done in the fit, and something when the fit is over.

What is to be done in the fit.

First, in the fit give three or four drops of spirit of Castor in beer or milk, also black Cherry water with a little sirup of Pyony, or give a small spoonful of this following Julep.

A Julep.

Take of Piony water, and linden water, of each one ounce, sirupe of Piony compound half an ounce, spirit of black Cherries two drachmes, magister of Coral a scruple, mix them together, and give it as before is shewed. Put to the nostrils Rue bruised, or oyl of Amber, or Balsam of Amber. Apply to the Region of the heart, and to the Temples Mithridate, or London Treacle, with the juice of Rue and a little wine, or water Epileptick of Langius. Let the nape of the neck, and the ridge of the back be anoynted with this following.

Take oyl of Castor, or oyl of Euphorbium half an ounce, the juice of Rue one ounce; boyl them together to the consumption of the juice, and use it. Hang about the neck of the childe a thin slice of Piony, or white Briony roots as green as you can.

What must be done with the fit is over.

Secondly, something must be done out of the fit. If the child be fix or six years old, you may give it this potion.

A purging potion.

Take of Agarick trochiscated four scruples, infuse it five or six hours in Oxymel of Squils; strain it hard, and add thereto of Castor in powder three greins, sirupe of Roses dolutive with Agarick one ounce, Balm water one ounce, make a potion, and give it a morning fasting. Let the child constantly take of the Julep before mentioned, and be kept anointed with the oyl of Castor and juice of Rue; also let it wear about its neck constantly a root of male Peony, or white Briony.

In Italy, and other places where this disease is very frequent, as soon as the children be born, they cauterize or burn them in the neck with a hot iron, or else drop a burning wax candle upon the place, where they desire to make an Issue, and that to prevent the falling sicknesse, for hereby they think the brain is dryed, and by pain the humour which doth flow, or may flow, is drawn and derived to the hinder part of the head, especially if the Issue be made by burning, for thereby whatsoever is gathered together in the brain that is offensive is evacuated. Cornelius Celfus was of the same minde, Lib. 3, Cap. 28, fol. 40. for he adviseth to have an Issue made there in two places, and he saith, it is the last refuge or remedy for to cure the Falling sicknesse. But I conceive that it is not safe to use such a remedy in young and tender bodies; for if the bodies of such young and tender children will not suffer purging or bleeding, how shall they endure burning, when as this must needs bring continual pain and watchings, whereby the strength must also decay.

Again, although an Issue may be profitable where the falling sicknesse ariseth primarily and chiefly from the brain, yet when the Falling sicknesse ariseth from the lower parts, (which doth often happen to children) it doth not profit, when as the matter, or ill vapor that cometh from the lower parts cannot be turned from the brain.

If the Falling sicknesse arise from worms, then use means against worms, as you may see in the Chapter of worms, to which means may be added the root of Piony, red Coral, &c.

Let the Mother, or Nurse keep a good dyet, and neither eat nor drink any thing that may offend the childe, or occasion these fits.

See more in my book of the chief diseases of the head, in the 6. & 7. Chapters.

Chap. 5
Of the pain in the ears, with inflammation,
moistures, ulcers, and worms thereof.

Among the diseases of children a Hippocrates in his Aphorismes doth nominate the moisture or running of the ears; For when the brain of infants is very moist, great part of that superfluous moisture is evacuated, or purged by the ears, yet this doth not often happen without inflammation. Therefore when abundance of moist humours do flow plentifully to the ears, theyu cause inflammation, also grievous pain is joyned therewith, which in moist bodies of children cannot be dispersed or dissolved, but is turned into matter, so that blood and matter doth flow out of the ears, a Hippocrat. Appli. sect. 3, 24.

The cause.

The cause is abundance of moist humours and excrements of the brain, which nature cannot expel by the nose and Palat.

The signs.

The moisture of the ears is easily known by its running, but pain and inflammation thereof is not so easily discerned, because infants cannot declare the same; but it may be known by their crying out and unquietness, especially being touched neer their ears, also rednesse and heat is perceived about the ear or ears.

The Prognosticks.

These diseases are not to be sleighted for such pains (in grown persons) have proved dangerous, much more therefore in children if it continue long.

Inflammation of the ears is many times dangerous, and brings a delirium or dotage and indangers life.

In ulcers of the ears if the matter be white, not too thick nor too thin, neither bloody nor much stinking, it is the better.

Inveterate and long continued Ulcers of the ears are dangerous, because they soon turn to a Fistula.

The cure.

For pain of the ears, use oyl of Roses, or oyl of Violets warm, or milk warm dropped into the ears, and afterwards stopped with wool; or drop therein the juice of Origanum and milk mixed together: Or drop in a little linseed oyl warm, or use a decoction of the heads of white Poppy, or the white of an Egg beaten and mixed with a little milk: or put a little Saffron into the ears.

Against moisture of the ears and ulcers thereof, use hony of Roses, and water of hony; dip a clout or tent therein and put it warm into the ears; or put in oyl of bitter Almonds warm.

For worms in the ears, use oyl of bitter Almonds and Myrrhe in powder, as in two drachmes of oyl put of Myrrhe in powder a scruple or thirty grains: or put the juyce of Wormwood warm into the ears.

Or take of Aloes, Myrrhe, and the seeds of Colonquintida, of each a drachme; boyl them in two ounces of oyl of Roses, strain it and drop of the strained liquor into the ears.

Chap. 6
Of breeding and coming of teeth.

Among all diseases that children are subject to, there is none more grievous or troublesome to them then the pain in breeding of their teeth. For faith a Hippocrates, The time of teeth breeding coming there hapneth itching of the bums, feares, Convulsions, Fluxes of the belly, especially when they bring forth their teeth, and most principally to those children which are most fat and grosse and have their belly hard and bound. a Hip. Aph. sect. 3, 25.

Sometimes children are born into the world with teeth, as experience witnesseth, Pliny faith M. Curjus was so born, who thereupon was surnamed Dentatus; and Cn. Papyrius Garbo, both of them very great men and right honourable Personages. And Bald-Rousans de vita bom. primord. cap de dent. In the year 1564. Saith he saw a girle born with two teeth in her lower gums called cutters. a Pliny Nat Hist. the 7. Book and 16. Chapter.

The time of breeding teeth.

The time of breeding teeth is about the seventh month, and first those teeth are bred that are called Incisorri, cutters or shearers, in Greek [ ], because they show themselves when we laugh: then within a little space of time come forth the Canini or Dog-teeth, from their length above the rest: They are called Oonlares or eye teeth, not that they reach to the orbit of the eye; for they mount not higher then the Nostrils; but because sprigs of the nerves, which move the eyes are carried to them. Last of all are bred the Molares or Grinders, because like Millers they grind the meat. Of these the hindermost are called Genuini & dentes sapientiae, the teeth of wisdom, because they shew not themselves until men come to the years of discretion, to wit, the 28. 30. yea even to old age it self. In some they never appear.

And first of all at their coming forth Children have a great itching of their gums, afterwards there following a pricking of their gums at the roots as it were with needles, from whence followeth vehement pain, watchfulnesse, inflammation of the gums, fears, fluxes of the belly, and convulsions; And this doth chiefly happen when they breed their Dog teeth, or Eye teeth as the vulgar call them: from whence we have a Proverb, that Parents cannot rejoyce in their children till their eye teeth be come.

Sometime about the seventh year children sheed their teeth, or their teeth fall out, and new come in their roome, but this is without any pain, although children cannot speak of their pain in breeding their teeth, yet it may be known by these signs.

Signs of teeth breeding.

First from the time of breeding, viz. about the seventh month. Secondly, because they often put their fingers in their mouth, thereby to ease the pain. Thirdly, because the Nipples of the mother or nurse are more wrinkled than before. Fourthly, in those places where the teeth are breeding the gums are white and swollen. Lastly, divers accidents happen as pain, watchfulnesse, fluxes of the belly, fevers, convulsions: Now these fears which follow upon the teeth breeding, the inflammations of the gums, and watchfulnesse, they all come from pain, and then humours are stirred up and choller abounding which brings fluxes of the belly.

The Prognosticks.

The breeding of teeth in Children is very grievous and troublesome, by reason those diseases and symptomes that accompany the same, in so much that many die thereof: when convulsions and fevers are joyned therewith. Hip. de dentione fol. 59.

The longer the teeth are coming forth, the greater is the danger. Such children as have a loosenesse when they breed teeth, are lesse subject to Convulsions then those that are bound. If an acute or sharp Fever happen to children breeding their teeth, they are seldom taken with the Convulsion; because by the Fever the matter that might bring a convulsion is taken away.

Such as are in good health when they breed their teeth, if they be very drowsie and sleepy, there is danger least they fall into convulsions.

Such as breed teeth in winter are lesse troubled then those in sommer: and if they be a little helped they will endure it the easier.

Not all that breed teeth (being taken with convulsions) do die, but many escape.

Their teeth come forth hardest, or with most pain, that have a little Cough withall; and if they be troubled with pricking and shooting of the gums, they become very lean. While children breed their Dog teeth, or Eye teeth, they are worst, and more troublesome, because they bring more sharp and grievous pain to them.

The cure.

Let the gums be often rubbed with the finger wet with Hony, or with Hony and Butter mixed together, or with the brains of a Hare; or the brains of a Hare mixed with Capons grease and Hony. If you cannot get a Hares brains, take Conies brains.

Rub the gums often with red Coral. It is good also to wash the outside of the cheek with a decoction of Mallows and Camomil flowers; or to anoint the same with the juyce of Mallows and Butter mixed together.

If there be an inflammation of the gums, and the pain be very extream, then the best way is to cut the gums; for this is very safe, and were it more used, fewer Children would die: for I am confident the want thereof doth occasion the death of many a child.


The Nurse must observe a good Dyet, and be very temperat therein, and rather incline to cooling then heating. She may use Barly water made with Avens, Lettice and Endive, abstaining from all salt and sharp meats, especially about the time of breeding their teeth.

Chap. 7
Of the inflammation of the mouth and throat,
with ulcers and sores thereof.

Oftentimes there arise certain ulcers and sores in the mouthes of children called Aphthae, which do not onely possess the sides of the mouth, the tongue and gums, but sometimes the very Almonds and Pallat of the mouth.

Among the diseases of the children, Hippocrates * maketh mention of the inflammations of the Almonds of the mouth. *Hip. Aph. 3. 26.

The cause.

They proceed from vitious and corrupt milk, for seeing the inward parts of the mouthes in children are soft and tender, and have not been used to any meat in the mothers womb, if the milk be not very sweet and pleasant, but sharp and corrupt, these ulcers, sores, and inflammations are soon bred. The same doth happen if the milk be corrupt in the stomach, for from thence arise hot and sharp vapours, especially considering the tendernesse of those parts about the mouth and throat.

The Prognosticks.

These inflammations and sores being not of any long continuance, (especially in tender and young infants) are easily cured, because they arise from a light cause and matter: But such as of long continuance are more hardly cured, and have putrifaction joyned therewith.

Those sores and ulcers of the mouth in children that are black and with crusts or scales, are worst of all, and many times prove mortal.

The cure.

In the beginning we must use astringent, or binding and repelling, or medicines to drive back; afterwards medicines binding but withall discussing.

If there be onely heat and inflammation, then we must use cooling means and a little binding. If these sores come from the fault of the milk, then the nurse must keep a good Dyet, and avoid all hot, sharp and salt meats.

Give the child often sirup of Mulberries with hony of Roses, and if need be with Oxymel. If they be red, then use medicines moderately binding, as sirup of dry Roses, sirup of Purslain, sirup of Grapes, Sorrel, Citrons, and Mulberries with the powder of Lentils, Sumach and red Roses.

If they be yellow use cooling meanes, as sirup of Violets, sirup of Purslain, &c.

Or take the juyce of Lettice, Purslain, Nightshade, of each half an ounce; mix them together and use it with a feather.

Or take of red Roses and Violets in powder of each a drachme, Hony one ounce and a half, or as much sirup of Mulberries, mix them together and use it.

Or take of Plantain water half an ounce, hony of Roses, and sirup of Mulberries, of each half an ounce, mix them together, and wash the childs mouth often with it.

Or take of French Barly half an ounce, Agrimony, Plaintain, red Roses, of each a handful: boyl these in water, strain it, and in six ounces thereof mix of sirup of Mulberries half an ounce, hony of Roses one ounce, and a half, and if there be need, you may add half a drachme of Allom, which will make it more cleansing.

Or take of Rosewater, or Plantain water one ounce, hony of Roses, half an ounce, oyl of Vitriol so many drops as may make it sharp, mix them together, and wash the mouth therewith.

Chap. 8
Of fevers in Children.

Children are many times taken with burning fevers, as well as with Quotidian, Tertian, and quartain Agues.

The cause.

The cause of fevers in children may arise from corrupt milk, for when the milk doth putrifie choller is stirred up, and also the rest of the humours are inflamed, from whence cometh fevers. Sometimes fevers may proceed from the breeding of teeth, sometimes from pains, inflammations and overmuch watching, as Hippocrates witnesseth. Hip. Aph. 3. 25.

The Signs.

The signs of a Fever in children are these; Great heat and dryness, redness of the tongue and throat, want of rest, urine red, some times thick and sometimes thin, quicknesse of the pulse, much inquietnesse, and many times raving and idle talke if they be of any bigness. If fevers come from the breeding of teeth, then you have the signs in the Chapter of breeding of teeth.

The Prognosticks.

These fevers being but gentle, are not dangerous, for the cause being taken away, they soon cease; but if the milk continue long corrupt and vitious, then children are much endangered by these fevers. If sharp fevers come upon children while they breed their teeth, they are seldom taken with convulsions; sometimes fluxes, of the belly and great watchings accompany these fevers, whereby children are soon suffocated.

The cure.

If the fever proceed from corrupt milk, then choller doth abound; the mother or nurse therefore must use cooling and moistening means, as broth or posset drink made with Lettice, Endive, Sorrel, Violet leaves, straberry leaves, &c.

Also Almond milk made with the four cooling seeds, and Barly water are very useful. The mother or nurse must abstain from Wine, hot water and all spices; and may use some purging means, as Manna, two ounces thereof may be taken in broth or clear posset drink, or three ounces of sirup of Roses solutive, or one ounce, or one ounce and a half of Caffia, in the same you may give the child often sirup of Violets, sirup of the juyce of Citrons, half a spoonful at a time; or Take one ounce of sirup of Violets, and add to it as much Endive water, and give the child a spoonful at any time.

A Julep.

Or take of Borrage water four ounces, sirup of Violets, or sirup of Citrons one ounce and a half, spirit of Vitriol five or six drops, mix them together, and let the child take often two or three spoonfuls at a time.

If the body of the child be bound, you may put up a Violet comfit or two, first anointed with a little oyl; or give one ounce of sirup of Roses solutive (more or lesse according to the age of the child) in posset drink in a morning. Or give half an ounce of Manna dissolved in posset drink. Anoint the back and ridge of the child with oyl of Violets mixed with a little wax. And anoint the stomach with some of this oyntment following.

An oyntment.

Take oyl of Roses, and Mastick in powder of each half an ounce, red and white Saunders in powder, red Coral in powder of each a scruple, wax two drachmes; make an ointment, and use it as before mentioned.

A Pultis.

Or take of red Roses in powder two drachmes, the juyce of Plantain, Houfleek, and Endive of each half an ounce; with the white of an egg and some Barly flower make a pultis, and apply it to the stomach. Anoint the temples and wrests with oyl of Roses and oyl of Populcon of each a little quantity mixed together.

If the fever proceed from breeding of teeth, use means to help nature herein, as in the first Chapter.

 Chap. 9
Of the small Pox and measels.

Of small Pox and Measels are diseases that most children are troubled with first or last.

They are both of one nature and proceed from one cause, saving that the measels are ingendred of the inflammation of blood, and the small Pox of the inflammation of blood mingled with Choler.

What the small Pox are.

The small Pox are spots, red pustules appearing in the skin, with a continual fever stirred up or excited from the strength of the expulsive faculty and ebullition or boyling of the blood.

What the Measels are

The Measels are spots or risings upon the outside of the skin, in some parts, more or lesse with a Fever, by reason of the strength of the expulsive faculty, and heat or boyling of the blood.

The difference between the small Pox and the Measels.

At the first appearing they are so like one another, that you can hardly discern the difference; The Measels (most times) come more suddenly, & the face & the skin of the whole body looks redder, and the redness continues longer without rising, there being joyned therewirth most commonly a greater itching and pricking. But the small Pox come not forth so suddenly, neither is the skin so red, nor doth the colour stay so long, and the pimples rise higher, neither is the itching and pricking so much, and at length grow white.

The cause.

There are two chief causes thereof. First, the reliques and impurity of the mothers blood, with which the child was nourished in the womb, and receiving the same into the pores of the body, the which at that time for debility of nature could not be expelled, but the child increasing afterward in strength is driven out of the veins into the upper skin.

Secondly, it may come by way of contagion, from a peculiar malignity of the air when any place is infected, so that one person infecteth another.

Now the fuller the body is of this menstrual blood, the deeper impression doth the outward air make in it; which is the reason that some have them in greater quantity, and are fuller of them then others: And so according to the malignity of the humor, it is more or lesse dangerous to some then to others. Sometimes the ill dyet of the nurse, or feeding upon meats that increase rotten humours, may cause this disease.

The signs.

The figures of them are these. Pain of the head, eyes and throat, with a beating of the head and temples, itching of the nose, neesing, fear, and starting in sleep, like fits of the convulsion, or Falling sicknesse, and sometimes Convulsions with ravings; all of which happen from hot vapours, and that from the boyling of the blood, and so ascend up to the head.

Also there is a pain and beating of the back, heavinesse of the whole body, a pricking pain in all parts, as if stung with nettles, difficulty of breath, a trembling of the feet, yawning or gaping, and a stretching of the body, trembling of the heart, and sometimes swooning, rednesse of the eyes, great drought, hoarsness, and a dry cough. The urine is sometimes red and thick, which shews great heat and boyling of humours, and sometimes not much differing from the water of one in health. The nose doth many times bleed, and that from the heat of the blood, and by its sharpnesse doth open the orifices, or mouthes of the veins; which if it happen to be much in the beginning, then the disease is not so violent. Sometimes the eyes water and are moist: And last of all the spots appear, and that most times within three or four daies.

The small Pox or Measels happen chiefly in the Spring and Autumne, especially if the Summer before were wet, and the winde in the South; or if the winter foregoing be warm, and the wind Southern.

The Prognosticks.

It is better to have the small Pox or Measels come forth speedily than to be long in coming forth; for this sheweth strength of nature.

If after they be come forth, the feaver and other symptomes do decrease, tis a good sign.

If the spots be white, or red, and full, coming to maturity or ripenesse, ’tis good; but if they be blew or black, livid and fall flat, whether few or many, ’tis a bad sign.

If fainting of the spirits, or swoonings, fluxes of the belly, shortnesse of breath, black urine, or Convulsions happen, ’tis worst of all.

If the feaver increase after they be come forth, and they flash abroad not ripening speedily, and if hoarsenesse follow, these are very bad signs.

The cure.

The safest way is not to meddle much with children that have these diseases, but let nature alone herein; yet where nature is weak it will be very necessary to use means to expel out the disease: As Saffron in milk, London Treacle, and Diascordium, if there be a loosenesse is very good, given in Carduus or Angelica water. Barly water made with Figs, Dates, Licorice and Annis seed is very good; or

Take of French Barly a handful, shavings of Ivory and Harts horn, of each two drachmes, Licorice bruised one ounce, Citron pils dry and cut in thin slices three drachmes; boyl them in a pint and a half of Posset drink to a pint, strain it, and let the child drink of it often, especially morning and evening.


Take three or four Figs cut, Harts horn two drachmes, Marigold-flowers a drachme, Carduus half a drachme; Boyl them in a pint of Posset-ale, strain it and add thereto of Saffron in powder two scruples. Give three or four spoonfuls of it morning and evening warm.

A Cordial Julep.

Take of Carduus, or Angelica water three ounces, syrup of Baume one ounce two drachmes, Treacle water a spoonful or two, mix them together, and give often of it a spoonful at a time.

If the child be bound, you may put up a vioent comfit anointed with oyl, or if the Pox be well come forth, and the child be bound, you may administer a Clister made with milk and brown Sugar; or, take of milk a quarter of a pint, and two ounces of Sugar, mix them together, and administer it warm.

After the Pox are come forth, and do begin to dye, you may anoint with this following,

An Oyntment.

Take of chalk in fine powder, and often washed in Plantane water two drachmes, of Cream two ounces; mix them well together, and anoint the face with a feather. Or, use the oyl of sweet Almonds mixed with Parmacitty.

You must not keep the childe too hot nor too cold, for being kept too hot it may cause faintings and swoonings, and being kept too cold, it may drive them in again, and so check and hinder nature from expelling them out to the skin.

See more in my book called Help for the Poor, Pag. 56, 57, 58, & 59.

Chap. 10
Of watchings out of measure, and want of rest.

The childe while it is in the mothers womb is detained or kept in a perpetual sleep, and after it is born, if it be well, it doth sleep much at the first, because it hath a very moist brain, and doth abound with humidity or moisture.

The cause.

The cause of watchings, is the corruption of the milk, or too much milk, which putrifieth in the stomach, from whence sharp vapors arise continually to the brain, and stir up the animal spirits not letting them be at quiet. Sometimes breeding of teeth may be the cause thereof.

The signs.

The signs are manifest, for the child cannot sleep, but is constantly out of quiet.


This is dangerous in children, not onely because in general sleep and watchfulnesse if they exceed measure, are ill; but chiefly because this is contrary to the nature of children, which are wont to sleep much.

By too much watching humours are stirred up, and become dry, whence Convulsions, fears, Catarrhes or Rheums, and other diseases are bred in children.

The cure.

The means to bring rest are inward or outward. Inward means are these following.

Inward means.

If the child be bound give it syrupe of Roses, or put up a violet comfit into the body of it, and give every night the bignesse of a Pease of Diascordium, in a little Posset drink, more or lesse, as the childe is in bignesse. This you may use four or five nights together if need be, but where the body is bound be sparing in the use of it. Barly water (made with white Poppy seeds) may be given to the child at night, or half a spoonful of syrupe of violets, or syrupe of white Poppy heads, half so much, where the childe is subject to watchings, else use not the last.

Outward means.

Outward means are these following, make a Bath (if it be Summer) of the tops of Dill, Cammomil flowers, Mallowes, Willo leaves, Vine leaves, and the heads of Poppy, white or red; and wash the feet therewith. You may anoint the temples with oyl of Roses, or oyl of Violets, or water Lillies, or with Populeon oyntment; or you may use oyl of Nutmegs (made by expression) to the temples warm, or you may make a Pultis of white Poppy seed, womans milk or Rose water, or Nightshade water, and the white of an egg with a little Saffron. Anoint the nostrils with oyl of Violets mixed with the juice of Nightshade. If it proceed fom breeding of teeth, then use those means set down in the Chapter of breeding teeth. Let the Nurse use a good dyet, and means that may cause sleep, as Almond milk, made with a decoction of Lettice and white Poppy seeds: Or, she may take a spoonful of sirup of white Poppy for three or four nights together in Posset drink.

Chap. 11
Of Fear, Starting, and terrible dreams.

Among the diseases that are incident to children, Hippocrates mentions great fears, and starting which is nothing else but troublesome sleep, accompanied with terrible dreams.

The cause.

The causes hereof are impure and filthy vapors which mingle themselves with the animal spirits, and trouble the same, representing terrible fancies to the imagination; now these vapors arise from the bad concoction of the stomach. Therefore this disease is very subject to children, who suck the milk very greedily, or eat abundantly, and so receiving more nourishment than the stomach can digest, it is corrupt, and so these vapors arise to the brain, and trouble the animal spirits. Neither is it absurd to say that these vapours do not onely ascend by the *Oesophagus or gullet, but that by the veins they ascend up to the head. Elder children are subject to this disease as well as younger. *Oesophagus is that part, by which meat and drink are turned down into the stomach.

Galen saith, these fears, are caused when there is a natural imbecillity or weaknesse of the childs stomach, and the meat received is corrupted in it, which cause vapours to arise up to the head, and bring these startings. Sometimes they come from worms, and when they breed their teeth.

The signs.

The signs are manifest, for they often start in their sleep, screech and cry out suddenly, and many times they shake and are all in a water, and most times a hot and stinking vapour proceedeth out of the childs mouth.

The Prognosticks.

This disease must not be sleighted, because many times it is the forerunner of the Falling sicknesse.

The cure.

For the cure hereof, means must be used to take away the corrupt humours in the stomach.

Let the Nurse keep to a moderate dyet, and use meats that hinder corruption, and abstain from all vitious and corrupt food; as Pease, Beans, Leeks, Onions, Colewort, &c. that so the milk may be good which the childe sucketh.

Let the childe suck but sparingly and moderately least by too often sucking the stomach be oppressed; neither let the childe after sucking or feeding be laid to sleep, but kept watching a while, that so the nourishment may descend to the bottome of the stomach, and the concoction be the better. When it is laid to sleep, let it not be much rocked, for overmuch shaking of the child hindreth digestion, and causeth the childe many times to vomit.

To remove the corrupt food in the stomach, let the childe take oyl of sweet Almonds, or sirup of Succory, or Manna, or a little hony of Roses solutive; you may give a spoonful or two of either, for these will cleanse the corrupt humours and provoke to stool. Give the child half a scruple or more of Pyony seeds in a little milk morning and evening; or give it a little Magister of Coral.


Take Magister of Coral a drachme, species Pleres Archonticon a scruple, Sugar dissolved in Rosewater one ounce; make rouls or cakes, and give of them to the childe, or dissolve them in beer and so give them.

Let the stomach be anointed morning and evening with oyl of wormwood, Mints, Nardus, Mastick, or oyl of Nutmegs.


Take oyl of Wormwood and Mastick of each a drachme, Cloves in powder ten grains, wax half a drachme, make a Liniment, and anoint the stomach therewith.

If starting come of Worms, or from a feaver, then use those means set down in the several Chapters. Great care must be taken against all occasions of fear and frighting be taken away.

Chap. 12
Of Rheume, the Cough, and shortness of breath.

The Cough, Rheume, and shortnesse of breath doth oftentimes much molest and disquiet children.

The cause.

The cause of rheume in children is from their natural constitution, or moist temper of brain, from which many excrements are easily heaped together. And this happens from abundance of milk oppressing the stomach, from whence many vapours arise up to the brain and fill the same. For if the brain be filled with excrementitious humours, or molested with the cold air, (which the child was not used to in the mothers womb), or with too much heat, or being kept too hot (either the head or body,) the matter gathered together in the brain doth plentifully fall down to the nostrils, mouth, or lungs. Now if these excrementitious humours cannot be purged by the nostrils, they slide down into the rough artery and cause a cough. If they fall down to the lungs they cause shortnesse of breath.

The Signs.

Whether the humor be hot or cold is easily known, for if it be hot the humour is more thin, and the child doth often sneese, the face and cheeks are hot, and the mouth of the child is hot, which may be perceived by the nipples of the nurse, as also in sucking. If the humour be cold, then the contrary is found. Now whether the shortnesse of breath proceed of matter descending from the head, or from a phlegmatick blood, ascending from the veins to the lungs, may be thus known; if it come from the head there is a cough, and rheume doth follow, and sometimes as they breath they snort, and make a noise, because the air is stopped coming from the lungs. But if it come from a flegmatick humour arising from the hypochonders, then there is neither cough nor rheume, and the hypochonders are puffed up and swollen.

The Prognosticks.

Rheumes, and also the cough following, and shortnesse of breath in infants and children are not to be neglected, because strong Coughing doth not onely cause watchings and vomitings but Ruptures, and Rheumes also bring suffocations and death many times. These Rheumes and Coughs in children are not so easily cured, because those medicines cannot be used which bring expectoration of spitting, and to cause the matter to be easily spit out.

The cure.

Let the nurse keep a temperate dyet, avoiding all sharp and salt meats, as also all things that cause vapours to ascend up to the brain.

Let the nurse take often of this pectoral decoction.

Take of Figs and Jujubes of each twenty in number, Sebeslens thirty in number, Raisons of the sun stoned ten drach. Licorice 2. drachmes, Maidenhair, Hyslop, and Violets of each an ounce; boyl them in three pints of water to the consumption of the third part, then being strained give it as before.

If the child be bound you may give it sirup of Roses, Manna or Cassia. And give the child oyl of sweet Almonds with white Sugar candy, which will not onely loose the belly but ease the Cough. If shortnesse of breath proceed from fulnesse of the stomach and hypochonders, then give the child some Hony mixed with a little Fenegreek seed and Comin seed in powder. Afterwards give the juyce of Fennel in milk, or sirup of Jujubes, or sirup of Maidenhair; or make Almond milk with some Pine kernels in Colts foot water, or Scabious water, and sweeten it with sugar Candy.


Take one ounce of sugar Pellets, and being dissolved in two ounces of Hyslop water, warm them on the fire, and give a spoonful often of it. Or you may give sugar Candy and Hyslop water in the same manner. If the child be of any bigness, you may give it often pectoral Roules, or Tresks to eat, or sugar Pellets.

Let the breast be anointed morning and evening warm with oyl of sweet Almonds mixed with Capons grease or sweet Butter; or with the oyntment called Pectorale.


Take of the oyntment called Resumptivum, oyl of sweet Almonds of each one ounce, Capons grease and Goose grease, of each two drachmes, mix them together and use it.

To dry up the Rheume lest the childs headclothes be perfumed with the powder of red Roses and Frankincense at night. And you may bath the childs feet with a decoction made with Rosemary, Sage, Marjoram, &c. And afterwards anoint the feet with oyl of Bayes, or oyl of Costus warm.

And because the Rheume sometimes falls down by the rough artery, so that the nostrils of the child are dry, and much stopped, therefore you must anoint the same with fresh Butter, or put up some therein, or with oyl of sweet Almonds, or with this following.

Take the juyce of Beets and Marjoram, of each two drachmes, of the juyce of Chickweed half an ounce, oyl of sweet Almonds one ounce, mix them together, and anoint the nostrils therewith; or put up Basil, Cloves, and Marjoram in powder into the nostrils to provoke sneezing, that thereby the matter which flowes down by the rough Artery may flow out of the nose.

If the Cough hinder the child from sleeping, give it at night of sirup of Jujubes, sirup of Violets, and sirup of white Poppy, of each a like quantity mixed together, or give Conserve of red Roses if the child be of any bignesse.

Chap. 13
Of vomiting and weaknesse of the stomach.

Many times the childs stomach is so weak that it cannot retain any sustenance taken.

The cause.

The cause hereof is either abundance of milk which the child greedily sucketh, or the ill quality of the milk, or worms; from whence ill humours are stirred up and so cause vomiting. It may also proceed from flegme falling down upon the stomach, but this is more rare in children and doth not often happen.

The signs.

If it come from abundance of milk sucked the Nurse may soon know it; besides the childe after vomiting is better.

If it proceed from the corruption of the milk, ’tis known by the quality thereof, for the milk is yellow, green, or of some other bad colour which is vomited up, and hath an ill favour or smell; also the milk of the Nurse is not good.

If worms be the cause, then you have the signs in the Chapter of worms.

The Prognosticks.

Vomiting in children is most times little dangerous, for it is a common saying among women, that those children are most lively and vivacious that being young do vomit; and there wants not reason to second this opinion; for the child being newly born hath some vitious humours in the stomach, which was collected in its mothers womb, and then receiving fresh nourishment from the Nurse which it was not accustomed to; moreover the stomach being lax or loose, moist and weak, it soon happeneth that the milk is corrupted: Therefore if these vitious humours be cast out by vomit, it is far better then if they were retained in the stomach.

If vomiting proceed from abundance of milk, there is lesse danger, and most times after vomiting the child is better. If from the corruption of the milk it is worse, because thereby may follow other dangerous symptomes.

If vomiting continue long, it is dangerous, because it may bring an Atrophy, or leannesse of the whole body, and so death at length.

If that which is vomited be white and flegmatick, ’tis better then if it be yellow, green, or blackish.

The cure.

If vomiting proceed from too great plenty of milk sucked, then let not the childe suck so often, nor so long.

If it come from corruption of the milk, then the fault of the milk must be mended, as is before declared, and that which is corrupt must be cleansed by the use of syrupe of Roses solutive, or hony of Roses solutive.

Now that the stomach of the childe (which is weak and loose) may be strengthened, you may use syrupe of Mints, syrupe of Quinces, &c. Or,

A powder or loloch.

Take of wood Aloes, red Coral, Mastick, of each half a drach, Galangal half a scruple, make them into powder, and give of it to the child in milk, as much as will lye upon two pence, or three pence at a time; or make a lohoch, or licking medicine thereof with syrup of Quinces, and give it often to the childe. Marmalade of Quinces is also very good for the child, or a Quince rosted tender and given with Sugar and Cloves in powder. Apply outwardly to the stomach the plaister of a crust of bread, the Cerot called sitomachale, or a crust of bread, wet in Muscadel.


Take oyl of Mastick, oyl of Quinces, oyl of Mints, oyl of Wormwood, of each half an ounce, oyl of Nutmegs by expression half a drachme, Cloves in powder a scruple, mix them together, and anoint the stomach therewith morning and evening warm.


Take of red Roses half a handful, Mints a drachme, Cyperus roots and Myrtle berries, of each two drachmes; Boyl them in red wine, and bathe the childes stomach therewith warm.


Wet a spunge, or woolen cloth therein, and lay it warm to the stomach.

Take Mastick, Frankincense, red Roses, of each two drachmes, Cloves a scruple; make them into powder, and with the juice of Mints, or the distilled water thereof make a Pultis, and lay it to the stomach.


Take of oyl of Mastick, or oyl of Wormwood two ounces, wax one ounce and a half, Cloves, Mace and Cynamom in powder, of each two drachmes; make all into an oyntment, adding thereto a little Vinegar: Anoint the stomach with it morning and evening warm. You may anoint the stomach morning and evening with oyl of Mace made by expression.

If the milk be very hot, then anoint the stomach with oyl of Quinces, or oyl of Myrtles, or oyl of Roses.


Take oyl of Roses, and oyl Myrtles, of each one ounce, Vinegar two drachmes, red Coral and the three Saunders in powder, of each half an ounce, mix them together, and use it to the stomach. Coral doth much prevail herein by an occult, or hidden property, and therefore it is hung about the neck of children to stay vomiting.

Chap. 14
Of the Consumption, or Leannesse of the Rickets

Children do many times wax lean without any manifest cause, and although they suck much, or feed well, yet they are not therewith nourished.

The cause.

Now the causes are many; as the corruption of the milk, for being either too hot or too cold, it turns into ill humours, and so hinders the breeding of good blood; or it may come from want of suck, from whence we see many times that when a childe consumes and pines away with sucking one Nurse, if it such an other, it soon thrives and grows.

Again, worms may be the cause, both such as are bred in the belly, as also in other parts; or it may come by reason of a Feaver, or from a flux of the belly.

The signs.

The signs are manifest.

The Prognosticks.

If a child consume for want of milk, or a good Nurse, this may soon be cured by getting a better Nurse.

If it come from worms in the belly or other parts, it is not easily cured. The Consumption in most children is dangerous if it be not taken in time, and kills many.

The cure.

If the fault be in the milk, that must be rectified by good dyet of the Nurse, or if that do not help, then the Nurse is to be changed.

If worms be the cause, then means must be used to kill worms, as you may see in the Chapter of worms.

If leannesse come from a Feaver, or without any manifest cause, make this following Bath.

A Bath.

Take the head and feet of a Wether; boyl them till the bones fall asunder; then bath the childe with this liquor twise a day, and after bathing anoint with this following oyntment:

Take of fresh Butter, oyl of Roses and of Violets, of each one ounce, Hogs-grease, or the fat or raw Pork half an ounce, wax a quarter of an ounce; make an oyntment, and anoint the body with it warm twise a day.


Anoint the body with oyl of sweet Almonds and fresh butter mixed together; or else anoint the body with the oyntment called Resumptivum, or Resumptive oyntment.


If it come from great drynesse of the stomach, bathe the stomach with milk warm, and use this following.

Take of fresh Butter, Hens grease, of each half an ounce, Saffron in powder five or six grains, oyl of Violets, or Wormwood three onces, mix them together, and anoint the stomach morning and evening warm.

If it come from a flux of the belly, then use the means to stay the looseness as in the Chapter of the flux of the belly.

Concerning the Rickets, there is a learned Treatise set forth lately by three or four Doctors, and since translated into English, where you have that disease accurately and exactly handled, unto which I refer the Reader.

Chap. 15
Of the Hicket.

The cause.

The Hicket in children is caused from the corrupt nourishment in the stomach, or from abundance of milk in the stomach, or from the coldnesse of the stomach by the outward air.

The Prognosticks.

The Hicket in children most times is void of danger, and the cause being taken away, it doth soon cease. But if it happen to continue long, or be complicated with some other disease, as the Falling sicknesse, or Convulsions, many times it proves deadly.

The cure.

If the Hicket come from corrupt nourishment, or fulnesse of the stomach, ’tis good to make the child vomit either by putting your finger in the throat of it, or by putting down a feather anointed with oyl, or by some other light and easie means, that hereby the offensive matter may be taken away; then use means to heat and strengthen the stomach as in the 13. Chapter, and let the child be sparing in sucking and eating.

If it proceed from corruption and fault of the milk, then means must be used to amend the same by good dyet of the Nurse as before, and the corrupt milk to be purged away by syrupe of Roses, orhony of Roses solutive, then to use Conserve of red Roses with red Coral in powder, or Bolearmoniack.

If it come from cold, then let the stomach be warmed both with inward and outward means. Give the child sirup of Mints, or sirup of Betony, and let the stomach be bathed with a decoction made of Mints, Organy Wormwood & Cyperus roots; afterward anoint the stomach with oyl of Dil, oyl of Mastick, or oyl of Mints; or apply a Pultis made with Mints and Dill seed bruised, and oyl of Mastick.


Apply Mastick and Frankincense in powder (mixed with the white of an egg) to the hole of the stomach.


Take of Mastick one ounce, Frankincense, Dill seed, ana. 3. 2. make them into a powder, and mix them with the juice of Mints, then wet Hempen clouts therein, and apply it to the stomach warm.

Chap. 16
Of Gripings and Frettings in the belly.

Children are very often troubled with gripings in their belly, which sometimes cometh alone and sometimes with fluxes of the belly.

The cause.

These gripings come chiefly from the milk, either being too windy or too sharp, for if abundance of milk oppresse the childes stomach, crudities and wind are soon bred; which also doth the sooner happen if the Nurse have used windy meat, or if the belly of the childe be tender and cannot endure the cold air. But if the milk be corrupted in the stomach, when it descends to the bowels it doth gnaw and pinch them, so that it causeth great pains and gripings. Sometimes worms are the cause thereof.

The signs.

These gripings are easily known, for the childe is very unquiet, and cryeth frequently, neither will it suck, and many times cannot make water because of the wind that oppresseth the neck of the bladder and stoppeth the urine.

If these gripings come of winde, sometimes the pain remitteth or ceaseth, and sometimes increaseth, and the belly is puffed up and maketh a noise.

If they proceed from a humour, the pain is almost continually; and if from a tough and flegmatick humour, the belly is most times bound, and the excrements are like snot or snivel.

If they proceed from corrupt milk, or choler and sharp humours, then the belly is most times loose, and that which is voided is yellow or green.

If worms be the cause, then the signs of worms are manifest.

The Prognosticks.

These pains if they continue long, they weaken the spirits, and many times bring Convulsions and the Falling sicknesse. Those pains are worst, or most dangerous that proceed from corrupt milk and sharp humours. They are dangerous also that arise from worms.

The cure.

If these gripings come of winde and crude, or raw humours, and the body be bound it will be necessary to give the childe this or the like Clister.

A Clyster.

Take Pellitory of the wall and Camomil flowers of each half a handful; boyl them in broth made of meat; strain it, and take two, three, or four ounces of this liquor, and add to it hony of Roses solutive one ounce, half the white of an Egg, and make a Clister, which may be given to a child of a moneth, or two moneths old. Or give it some oyl of sweet Almonds new with a little Sugar one hour before it sucks, for this will loosen the belly and ease the pains.


You may give a scruple of Anniseed grosly beaten in Pap, Milk, or such like sweetened with Sugar. To a child newly born it doth help herein, and profitably purges away, or expels from the bowels green choler and filthy flegme. This doth Heurnius* comend by his own experience. Heurn. meth. ad prax. lib. 2. cap. 26: fol. 293.

You may also give the child Penniroyal water with Sugar, or Diascordium at night.

Outward means also (which do moderately warm, make thin and expel win) must be used, as the oyl of Dill, or oyl of Camomil, with which anoint the belly warm morning and evening.


Bruise Pellitory of the wall and boyl it in oyl of Camomil, or Salad oyl, and apply it warm to the belly.


Take Camomil flowers, the tops of Dill, of each a handful, Fenegreek and Linssed bruised of each half an ounce; boyl them in Wine, and twise a day (before feeding or sucking) let the childs belly be bathed therewith.

If they come from corrupt milk and sharp humours, then cleansing means are to be used; as sirup of Roses, hony of Roses solutive or sirup of Succory with Rubarb: or give a Clyster made of the decoction of Bran, and Pellitory of the wall, adding one ounce, or one ounce and a half of sirup of Roses solutive.


Take of the decoction of Barly 3. or 4. ounces, oyl of Dill one ounce, or one ounce and a half, the white of one Egg, make a Clister, and give it.

Anoint the belly with oyl of Roses, or oyl of Dill, and oyl of Camomil mixed together.

The nurse must avoid all windy meats, as Pease, Beans, Beets, hard Eggs, &c.

Chap. 17
Of loosenesse and flux of the belly.

Fluxes of the belly and loosenesse doth often happen to children, and that many times about the time of breeding their teeth, as Hippocrates witnesseth. Hip. Aph. 3, 25.

The cause.

The cause hereof is bad concoction, or corruption of the milk, or nourishment: For a Fever doth commonly follow the breeding of teeth, so that by the unnatural heat the digestion is hurt; then by much watching pain is increased and the concoction hindred. Also by pain the necessary heat (which brings good digestion) is drawn from the stomach, and so concoction is disturbed. Moreover the heat of the fever doth stir up many humours which flowing to the belly cause these fluxes. Again by reason of the Fever which happeneth to children about the time of breeding their teeth, they suck, or drink more then is meet; and also the Nurse most times (that she may content the child) doth often offer it the breast, and so dispose it to sleep more than is necessary, by which means both food and drink not being well concocted, are avoided by stool both crude and corrupt.* Mercurialis addeth an other cause of this flux while children breed their teeth, viz. from the pain that is stirred up by unnatural heat, from whence the humours are drawn to these parts, they become putrid salt and sharp, and so falling down to the stomach, and from thence to the bowels, stir up exceedingly the expulsive faculty, from whence follow these fluxes. But some do not conceive this to be probable. * Mer. de morb. pueror. lib. 2, ch. 25, fol. 147.

First, because those humours thus attracted, or gathered together, do not stay or abide in the mouth or gums, but fall down to the stomach.

Secondly, because the teeth and gums by the continual use of the mik, or sucking, are made more soft and temperate.

Thirdly, because in moist children there cannot be so great a heat, which can produce so much acrimonie and saltnesse.

Fourthly, because if these humours were so salt and sharp, they would soon breed ulcers of the mouth. Sometimes when children do not breed teeth, the cause may be from the outward air, whereby the stomach & belly of the child are too much cooled, and thereby concoction is hindered: or when the stomach is oppressed with too much food or nourishment whereby crudities and corruption of the food doth follow, so that if the same be not rejected or cast up by vomiting, it is carried down to the belly and causeth these fluxes: or it may arise from bad nourishment, or from the badness of the milk, from whence corrupt juyce is bred in the stomach which nature expels by stool. Sometimes it may proceed from the moistnes and loosenes of the bowels, which moisture hath its original from sharp humours in the stomach, and from thence falls down in to the bowels.

The signs.

If the flux come from the breeding of teeth, it may be known from the signs of breeding of teeth; as in the sixt Chapter. If it come from crude humours, then the food is voided not concocted, and the child is troubled with belching, also the excrements are white and frothy. If it come from hot humours, and corrupt nourishment, then the excrements are yellow, or green, also stinking, and the pains of the belly are greater.

The Prognosticks.

If the flux in children be not violent, the danger is not great, neither must it be suddenly stopped, because the corrupt humours in the stomach hereby are evacuated or purged, which if they were stopt would prove dangerous. From hence saith Hippocrates,* except blood come forth, stop it not till the seventh day be passed. *Hip. de dentione fol. 59.

Such children as have loosenesse when they breed teeth, are lesse subject to convulsions than those that are bound.

If children do not easily endure the flux, but have weak stomachs, and the spirits are low, also the flux continuing long, and they grow lean, then must the loosenes be stayed. That flux is dangerous in children, if it come by reason of acute or sharp fevers, and especially if the excrements be black.

The cure.

In the cure of loosenesse of the belly, we must consider whether the child suck or not, then whether the teeth break forth or not: For if the child suck, then the nurses milk must be looked on whether it be good or bad; If bad then it must be mended, or the Nurse changed. The nurse must use a binding dyet, and abstain from fruits and raw nourishment, as also from those things that are of hard digestion. If the Infant suck or not, and the flux be of some continuance, means must be used to stay it, and such means as first cleanse and then bind the body, as sirup of Roses solutive, or hony of Roses solutive. Clysters may be used.

A Clyster.

Take of Barly water (made with steel) four ounces, red Sugar one ounce, mix them together and make a Clyster. Where the humours are cleansed, and the flux doth proceed from a hot cause, give sirup of dry Roses, sirup of Quinces, sirup of Mirtles, sirup of red Coral, &c. Or give the powder of Mirtles with a little Dragons blood, or give Sorrel seed, Plantain seed, or red Roses in powder with the yolk of an Egg rosted at the fire.


Take of Mullein flowers, red Roses of each half a small handful, of Comfry roots the greater, and Tormentil roots, of each a drach. bruise the roots, and boyl them all in water, strain it, and to three ounces of the clearest add one ounce of sirup of Quinces, and give the child often of it: or take Nutmeg and Mastick in powder of each a scruple; give it at twise with the juyce, or a scruple of Quinces.


Take Acorn cups, Sorrel seed, and the kernels of Raisons dryed, of each a drachme, white Poppy seed half a drachme, make them into powder, and give ten grains or twenty grains of it morning and evening in sirup of Quinces, or sirup of red Coral.

Outward means must be used also.

Take oyl of Mirtles, oyl of Roses, oyl of Mastick, of each one ounce, with half an ounce of wax, make an ointment, and anoint the belly therewith morning and evening warm.


Bath the belly with a decoction of red Roses, Mullein, Plantain, in red Wine.


Take red Rose leaves, Mullein, of each a handful, Cipres roots two drachmes, Mastick half an ounce; make them into grosse powder, and make a quilt or bag, which being boyled in red Wine, apply it warm to the belly.


Take of the pulpe of Quince boyled in red Wine 4. ounces, of tosted bread (wet in Vinegar) one ounce and a half; with a little oyl of Mastick, make a Pultis and apply it to the belly and stomach warm. Or lay to the belly a plaister of a crust of bread, or the Cerot called Stomachale. If it come from a cold cause, and that the excrements be white, give sirup of Quinces with Mint water. Some commend the maw of a Kid, or Hare, if ten grains thereof be given, and the child to take no milk that day, least it curdle in the stomach; but give it bread boyled in water with Rosewater and Sugar.

Apply outwardly Mints, Wormwood, Mastick and Comin seed.


Take of Rose seeds one ounce, Comin seed and Annised of each two drachmes, make them into powder, and with oyl of Mastick, oyl of Wormwood and a little wax make an ointment, and use it warm to the belly.


Apply Mints (boyled in red Wine) to the stomach, or a crust of bread wet in Mint water: or make a quilt or bag of Mints, Wormwood, red Roses, Mastick, Nutmegs and Cloves and apply it to the belly.

Chap. 18
Of Costivenes, or stopping of the belly.

As children are often troubled with fluxes of the belly, so are they many times troubled with stopping thereof.

The cause.

It may proceed from extream cold and drynesse of the belly, which happens to some children, from their birth; or from touch and flegmatick humours, which are as it were rowled up with the excrements, and cleave so fast to the bowels, that they are hardly voided, or from corrupt milk (with which the childe is nourished) from whence touch and flegmatick humours are bred in the stomach; which cometh to passe by reason of the weaknesse thereof, as also when the mother or nurse feed upon tough meets, and drink but little; for it seldom happeneth that children are fed with such dyet, except grown children; or it may come from the intemperate heat of the Liver, spleen, or reins of the childe, whereby the excrements become dry, or it may happen, when Choler that comes from the gall, (and should be carried down to the bowels) is turned some other way.

 The Signs.

The signs are manifest. If it be from a natural drynesse, then the childe is constantly bound and stopt.

If tough and thick flegme be the cause, the excrements that are voided, are mixed with the same.

If there be any error in the Mother or Nurse by ill dyet, that is easily known. 

If it be from the heat and drinesse of the Liver and Spleen, or Kidneys, it is known by those signs that shew the heat of those parts.

If Choller be turned an other way, and that be the cause, then the excrements are white, and not dyed at all with Choller, and the skin of the child looks yellow.

The Prognosticks.

Children that are much bound in their bodies have seldom their health well; and it is far better for youths to have their bellies loose then bound, ill vapours arise from the excrements to the whole body, and cause gripings of the belly, pain of the head, and many other distempers.

The cure.

First let the Mother or Nurse use a loosening dyet, and such things as are mollifying. And let them take also Manna, Caffia, or sirup of Roses, or a little Hony in the morning.

If the child be of some reasonable growth, then you may give it Manna, or Caffia, as from two drachmes to one ounce; or if it be young, you may give it half an ounce, or one ounce of sirup of Roses. Suppositories also made of Hony and Salt (and put up into the body) are good and safe, or Violet comfits anointed with oyl and so used, or Clisters may be given, as take common oyl two, three, or four ounces, of brown Sugar, two or three drach. the yok of an egg, Salt three or four corns, make a Clyster and administer it.


Take of Marsh mallowes half an ounce, common Mallowes, Pellitory of the Wall, of each half a handful, Cammomil flowers, Linseed and Fenigreek bruised, of each a drachme; boyl them in sufficient water, and take of the strained liquor three, four, or six ounces (according to the age of the childe), in which dissolve of Caffia two, three, or four drachmes, common oyl one ounce, or one ounce and a half; with the yolk of an egg, make a Clyster. You may anoint the Navil of the childe with Butter, or oyl of sweet Almonds, either alone, or mixed with a grain or two of Scammony or Coloquintida. The Gall of an Ox or Cow laid upon a clout, and so laid on the Navel causeth loosenesse, or a plaister made with the gall of an Ox, a rosted Onyon and Butter mixed together, and applyed warm to the belly doth the same.

If you desire stronger means, then take the juice of Walwort and Mildust, boyl them together, and apply them warm to the Navel.

Chap. 19
Of Worms.

Among all diseases that are incident to children, this of Worms is not the least. There are three sorts of wormes, round, flat, and small worms called Ascharides, and are bred in the fundament.

The cause.

Worms are caused of a crude and putrified flegme and other ill humours, but never of Choller or Melancholy; For all bitter things kill worms. All manner of fruits also breed worms, especially in children and moist bodies.

Signs of long and round worms.

The signs of long and round worms are these; The mouth aboundeth with moisture, the breath stinketh: terrible and fearful dreams follow, and they gnash and grind their teeth in their sleep, and start suddenly in their sleep, their tongues are hot and dry, and they often rub their noses; they have a dry cough, and sometimes vomiting and the Hicket followeth; they feed much sometimes, and sometimes little; great drought doth most times accompany wormes, the belly is hard and swollen, and sometimes bound, but most times loose. The urine is most times white and thick, and great gripings of the belly doth follow, especially when the belly is empty. The body waxeth lean for want of that nourishment which the worms consume, Oftimes they have cold sweats, the face is sometimes red, and sometimes pale, and many times they are taken with Convulsions, and fevers happen. The pulse is very uncertain. But the most certain sign of all is, when they void worms in their excrements.

Signs of long and flat worms.

If the worms be long, and flat, they have a great appetite to feed, and except they do eat, they have a great pain and grawing in their belly, and many times they faint; the body waxes lean and groweth weak; but the most certain sign is, if with their excrements they void flat substances like Gourd seeds.

Signs of the least sort of worms.

Signs of the least sort of worms (which are engendered in the great Gut) are these. A great itching in the fundament, and an often desire to go to stool; the excrements are like beasts excrements and very stinking, and these worms come oftentimes forth in the excrement, which is the most certain sign.

The Prognosticks.

Although sometimes children have worms, and that without any great hurt or danger, yet many times they produce dangerous symptoms.

The small worms are lesse dangerous than the others, because they are small and cleave to the right gut, and so are far distant from the noble parts, yet sometimes they cause ulcers in the right gut.

Broad worms are hardly cured, and produce bad symptomes, yea and many times death.

Long and round worms are most hurtful and bring most dangerous symptomes, and do many times pierce through the bowels. It is better that worms be thin and small then full, or great and filled with blood. It is better if a few worms be voided, than if many be voided. If the Worms be white, it is far better then to have them yellow, livid, red, or black.

It is more dangerous to have worms voided by the mouth, then by stools. Worms are more dangerous with a Fever then without a Fever.

If a Convulsion, with gnashing of teeth and losse of appetite happen to such as void Worms, it is dangerous.

Of the place where the Worms breed.

For the place where Worms breed, it is the bowels chiefly, and that for these reasons.

First, because the matter or substance of which they are bred (being a crude and raw humour) is so plentifully found in the bowels, that there is sufficient to breed and nourish them. Indeed crudities or raw humours are found in other parts of the body, but not sufficient to breed Worms. Secondly, because there is room enough for them to breed, the bowels being very large. And the veins they are too narrow to breed them there.

Thirdly, because nature shewing her care of life, hath so appointed it, that although worms many times kill, yet that they shoudl be bred in such places where they may do least hurt, and be with more facility and ease cast out of the body. Now although Worms be chiefly engendered in the bowels, yet Authors mention many other times where they are found.

Sometimes Worms have been brought forth out of the nose. Benivenius de abdit. Morb. Caus. cap. 100, fol. 19. Schenchius observat. lib. fol. 179.

Sometimes Worms have been found in the corner of the eyes, and have come forth. Anat. Cent. 7. cur. 63. Schench. observat. lib. I fol. 179.

Sometimes they have come forth out of the ears, Schenchius, observat. lib. I fol. 191. Sometimes they have been found in the teeth. Schench. obser. lib. I. fol. 218. Antonius Benivenius relates of one that was troubled with a Cough, and had used many means but all in vain, at length counsel was given him to take the juyce of Horehound with hony for many dayes, with which he fell a Coughing and brought up a worm, and was thereby cured. Beniven. de abd. morb. caus. cap. 77. fol. 16.

Sometimes worms have been found in the blood. Schench. obser. lib. 3 fol. 457. SOmetimes in the heart, and memorable is that of late years, of a Serpent, or a Serpentine worm that was found in the left ventricle of the heart, in John Pennant of the age of one and twenty years. You may see the full relation thereof put out by Dr. May, Printed 1639.

Sometimes they have been found in the liver. Schench. obser. lib. 3. fol. 452, and sometimes in the Kidneys. Schench. obser. lib. 4. fol. 509. Sometimes they have been found coming out of the groyn.

Tulpius observ. lib. 3. cap. 12. Sometimes they have been voided by urine. Roussens Epistol. 10. fol. 39. Sometimes Worms and other living creatures have been bred in the womb. Schench. observ. lib. 4. fol. 718. Sometimes worms have been found in womens breasts. Schench. observ. lib. 2, fol. 338. And sometimes they have eat their way through the stomach, bowels, Navel, Hypochonders and groyns. Schench. observ. lib. 3. fol. 409.

I could worry the Reader with many more observations of the like nature, but it is time to come to the cure of worms.

The cure.

First to preserve children from worms, let their dyet be such as may not engender worms. Let them avoid all sweet, fatty, and tough meats, as also milk, Fish, Figs, and all fruits.

They may take the shavings of Harts-horn or Harts-horn burnt in powder in Beer or in their Broth. If children be of any reasonable growth, you may give them Aloes, Hiera picra, or Rubarb in powder made up in pils with London Treacle, or sirup of Roses. Or give them in the pap of an Apple: or give them Torsses made of Diaturbith with Rubarb. Many herbs also that dry and resist the breeding of worms, are profitable, as wormwood, Centory water, Germander, &c.

But because these are so bitter, children will hardly take them; you may give them a decoction of the roots of grasse and mouse-ear with the juyce of Lemons or Citrons. And sometimes you give them a drop or two of the spirit of Vitriol in Beer, or posset drink.

The cure.

Secondly, for the cure of Worms; there are many common medicines in use as Aloes, Sea-mosse, Wormseed, &c.

The manner of giving them you may see in my Book of the nature of Simples. Wormseed and Figs, Wormseed and hony, or wormseed and muscadine, is a very good medicine for children that are of some bignesse, if you give it in the morning fasting and let them fast one hour after it.

Give this powder following.

Take of Wormseed and mosse, of each a drachme and a half, white Dittany roots and Tormentil roots of each half a drachme; make all into powder, and give it from ten grains to a scruple or more, in any convenient liquor.


Take of Wormseed two drachmes, Seamosse, Harts horn burnt, of each a drachme, Piony root, white Dittany, magister of Coral, of each a scruple; make all into powder, and take it as before. If a Fever be joyned therewith, then use medicines more cooling, and such as resist malignity as the juyce of Lemons, and Oranges, Vinegar, Harts horn, Bezar, &c. Or make this Potion.

Take of the distilled water of Grasse four ounces, sirup of Citrons one ounce, sirup of Violets half an ounce, spirit of Vitriol two o4 3. drops, mix them together for a Julep, and give a spoonful or two thereof at any time.

Also note, that in killing worms bitter things be given at the mouth, and sweet things administered by Clysters, for by the bitter things they descend lower, and feeding on the sweet they are soon brought away; after the giving of any medicine to kill worms, you may give a Clyster of milk and Sugar, or this following.

Take of Raisons in number ten. Figs in number seven; boyl them in water, strain it, and in 4. or 6. ounces of the decoction, dissolve of Sugar one or two ounces.

Note also if one medicine do not bring away Worms, that you must use a variety of medicines; or continue one medicine for some time, as about the full of the Moon give your medicine at the least two or three days together. Give a spoonful of sirup of Succory with Rubarb for divers mornings together. Before you give medicines to children for the Worms, it is convenient to give sweet and fatty things, as milk, Hony, Sugar, &c. And it is very profitable to mix sweet things with such medicine as we give for the Worms.

Outward means to kill worms.

Outward means are to be used also; as you may boyl Wormwood and Centory, Peach leaves and Lupins in water, and apply them warm to the belly, or apply Cumin seed with Ox Gall, or Bulls gall, or anoint the belly with the oyl of Savin, or oyl of Rue, morning and evening warm.


Take of London Treacle, or Mithridate half an ounce, mix it with the juice of Wormwood, spread it on leather, and lay it to the belly.


Take of Pills called sine quibus, half a drachme, Wormwood in powder a drachme, Myrrhe and Aloes in powder of each two scruples, Lupins in powder a drachme and a half, with Ox gall makes a plaister and lay it to the belly.

Chap. 20
Of Ruptures, or Burstings.

Children are often troubled with this disease, and that chiefly male children, and the cause may be from too much crying, coughing, and too frequent going to stool. In elder children it may come by too much motion of the body; as running, or leaping, by a fall, or riding astride; for the Rim or film of the belly in children is but weak and doth soon break, or grow loose, and so the guts fall into the cods.

The signs.

The signs are manifest.

The Prognosticks.

The Rupture in children is more easie to cure than in Elder persons, and that because the Rim of the belly is as yet more soft, and so is sooner joyned together.

Some hold that all watery Ruptures are worse to cure then the Rupture wherein the guts fall into the cods; but in infants ’tis not so, for experience doth witnesse, that the watery Rupture is cured soon with fit means, as they grow up to any bignesse.

The cure.

In Ruptures of the bowels, care must be had that the childe be loose bellyed, and that it take not too great plenty of nourishment wherby the belly may be distended, or swollen, also the child must be kept from crying, and from all vehement motion. For the cure thereof lay the childe upon his back, that his head may be lower than his feet, and gently reduce the bowels with your hand into their due place (but first let the place be anointed with oyl of water Lillies, or oyl of Cammomil) then apply this Pultis following.

A Pultis.

Take of Plantain leaves and Sanicle, of each half an ounce, meal of Lentils and Lupins, red Roses, of each three drachnmes, Olibanum a drachme, Allom half a drachme; make them into powder, and take part of it, and with the white of an egg beaten, make a Pultis and apply it warm, or make this Plaister.

A Plaister.

Take of the oyntment called Deficcativum, two ounces, Mastick, OlibanumSarcocol, Cypresse nuts in powder, of each a drachme, with a little wax and oyl of Mastick, make a soft plaister, apply it to the place, and binde it on, or get a Truss and put on.

Or, you may apply a Plaster of the plaister called Emplastrum ad Herniam. Or, take the leaves of thorough wax, and the root of great Comfrey, bruise them, and apply it warm on a linnen cloth, after twelve hours put on fresh, and so apply four or five, one after another. Or, take great Comfrey root bruised and cleansed, apply it as the former.

Inward means.

Inward means are also very necessary, as give the childe five or ten grains of Osmund Royal, or water Fern (more or lesse, as the childe is in bignesse) in milk or pap, morning and evening, or give as much of the herb called Rupturewort.


Take Sanicle, Plantain, of each half a handful, Egrimony a handful, Comfrey root the greater, half an ounce; boyl them in about a pint of water; strain it, and being sweetned with Sugar, give the childe often to drink of it.


Take Comfrey the greater and Knotgrasse, of each a handful; Boyl them in milk, and give the childe often of it. Mous-ear in powder is very profitable, being given in milk, or pap. So is small Moonwort boyled in red wine alone, or boyled with Comfrey, and so taken. Thorough wax also taken in powder, or decoction, helpeth Ruptures. Be sure the bowels be wel put up before inward or outward means be used.

If the Cod be swollen by reason of water, use oyl of Elder, oyl of Rue, or oyl of Bay, or make Pultis of Bean flower, Linseed, Fenegreek, Camomil flowers, Elder flowers, and Cumin seed in powder, and with a sufficient quantity of oil of Elders make it up. Let the childe be kept in bed, and as quiet as may be, and to avoid all windy and watery meats.

Chap. 21
Of swelling, or coming forth of the Navel.

This may happen when the Navel is not well bound, and when it is cut too long, or when the Rim of the belly is loosened, and from thence watery and windy humours get in and causeth the Navel to swell; which is caused from too much crying of the childe, or coughing: or it may come to passe when the Rim of the belly is broken,or when the Navel is ulcerated, and the guts fall down to the Navel, which disease is called properly Exomphalon, and Omphalocele.

The signs.

The signs are manifest.

The Prognosticks.

If the Midwife do not rightly cut the Navel of the childe, but leave it longer than is meet, this is not to be helped, but yet ’tis more troublesome than it is dangerous. This disease being not of long continuance is easily cured, but continuing long it is hardly cured and many times remains uncurable. If it be not cured in Infants, it may in grown years (especially if the bowels being fallen down be inflamed) bring the Iliack passion, and so death.

A History.

And now while I am writing this I have a Patient about fifty years of age, who for many years had a Rupture of her Navel, and on the 26. of this August. 1652. she was taken with the Iliack passion, who vomited very much, and on the 27. day, she vomited up her excrements, neer a bason full at the time, and though Clysters were administered to her, yet all in vain, for they come still away without any thing else, and whatsoever she took at the mouth came up again, so on the 30. day she dyed.

The cure.

If the rim of the belly be onely relaxed, or loosened, binding and strengthening means are to be used; but if broken, then vomiting and consolidating means are to be used. Let the child be kept from crying, and use all means to quiet it, and to bring it to rest. If there be a Cough, use means to mitigate the same, and let the child avoid all vehement motion. Bathing is not convenient, for hereby the Navel is made more loose. Both Nurse and Children must avoid all windy and flatulent meats. Let the belly be kept so loose, that there may not be too much straining of the body in going to stool. Then if the rim of the belly be loosened, and wind extend the Navel; Take of Comin seed, Bayberries, Lupines in powder, of each half an ounce, with red Wine make a Pultis, and apply it warm. Or take Cow dung in powder, Barly flower, and Bean flower, of each one ounce, Comin seed in powder half an ounce, with the juyce of Knorgrasse make a Pultis, and apply it to the navel.


Take Cow dung and boyl it in milk, and lay it to the navel. Or make a bag with Comin seed and Spikenard, then boil them in red Wine, and apply it to the navel laying a bolster thereon, binding it hard with a swade band. If the rim of the belly be broke, then use those means set down in the Chapter foregoing.

Chap. 22
Of inflammation of the Navel.

Sometime the Navel of the child is inflamed, which happeneth after the cutting of the Navel, and especially being exposed to the cold air.

The Signs.

This is known by swelling and hardnesse of the Navel, by rednes, heat and beating thereof.

The Prognosticks.

If these disease be taken in time, it is easily cured: But if it be not soon cured, a Fever will follow. If the inflammation turn to an impostume and break, and the bowels falling down many times it brings death to the child.

The cure.

Let the Navel be anointed with oyl of Roses, or with ointment of Roses mixed with Populeon ointment.


Take of Mallowes boyled and bruised one ounce; Barly meal half an ounce, Lupines and Fenegreek in powder of each two drach. with a little oyl of Roses make a Pultis and apply it.


Take Spikenard half an ounce, being in powder, Turpentine 3. ounces, with oyl of sweet Almonds one ounce, make an oyntment and use it.

If it come to suppuration or matter, Take of Turpentine half an ounce, the yolk of one Egg, oyl of Roses two ounces; mix them together and use it morning and evening.


Apply a Plaister of the oyntment called Diapompholigos, or of the same oyntment, and the ointment called Desicativum Rubrum mixed together.

Chap. 23
Of the swelling of the Cods.

Many times the Cods of children are swollen, which may happen by reason of water, or wind, and by too much motion of the child.

The signs are manifest.

The Prognosticks.

This disease although it be easily cured in children, yet if it be inveterate, many times it proves dangerous, and hinders generation.

The cure.

Let the cods be annointed with oyl of Lillies, oyl of Camomil, or oyl of Dill. Or apply the following.

Take Cow-Dung, boyl it in milk, and apply it warm.


Take a quart of Ale-wort, boyl it with crums of bread leavened, and one ounce of Comin seed bruised or in powder; with a sufficient quantity of Bean flower, make a Pultis and apply it warm.


Take Linseed and Fenegreek bruised, or in powder, of each one ounce, Camomil and Hollihock bruised, or cut small, of each a handful; boyl them in water, then with a sufficient quantity of Bean flower make a Pultis, and lay it on warm.

If there by any inflammation, and it be at the beginning, you make take a handful of Plantainleaves, bruise it, and with the white and yolk of an egg, and a little oyl of Roses make a Pultis, and apply it twise in a day.

If the pain be very extream, and the child be strong and of a reasonable growth, take of Henbane leaves bruised one handful, Mallowes as much; boyl them in water till they be tender, then with Bean flower, Barly flower, oyl of Roses, and oyl of Camomil, make a Pultis, and apply it warm; otherwise if the pain be not very great, use no repercussives, or such medicines as strike in the humour, or drive the matter back, for that will be dangerous.

Chap. 24
Of the falling of the fundament.

This disease happeneth when there is a relaxation, or resolution of the muscles which closeth the fundament; Now the cause hereof is too much moistnes and softnes, which doth frequently follow a flux of the belly: or it may come from a sodain cold, or by too much straining when children go to stool, especially when the body is bound whereby the fundament cometh forth and cannot return into his place again; which doth easily happen in children, because their bodies are moist and soft, and the muscles as yet but loose and languid, or weak.

The signs are manifest.

The Prognosticks.

If the fundament fall, or go out by too much straining in going to the stool it is more easily cured, if means, be used in time: But the longer the fundament hath been out, the more harder it will be to reduce it in again.

If it proceed from too much moisture it is more difficult to cure, especially if the flux of the belly be joyned therewith; for the disease can hardly be cured till the flux be stayed: moreover those necessary medicines that are used, are not easily detained or kept, but are hindered by the excrements coming forth so frequently.

The cure.

The whole cure of this disease doth consist in reducing the same into its proper place, and so keeping it. Therefore presently let the fundament be reduced into his place thus. Take a warm soft cloth, and with your hands gently return it into his due place, and then let the childe sit upon a hot Oaken board; or hold a hot napkin doubled to his fundament, and another to his belly.

But if there be any tumour or swelling about the same, make a decoction of Mallowes, Marshmallowes, and Linseed, with which bath the fundament warm, and afterwards anoint it with oyl of Lillies warm; or anoint the fundament with oyl of Linseed warm morning and evening, and strow upon the same the powder of white Dogs turd. The powder of burnt bones, and Bean flowr also is much commended for the same.


Take red Roses, Pomegranat flowers, Cypresse nuts, Pomegranet pills, of each half an ounce, Sumach, Olibanum, Mastick, of each two drachmes, boyl them in red wine, and bathe the fundament with some of it warm; then use this following powder. Take red roses and Pomegranat flowers, of each half a drachme, Olibanum, Mastick, and Myrrhe, of each two scruples, make all into powder, and being strowed upon Cotten wool, apply it to the fundament; or let the powder be strowed upon hot coles, and let the child sit over the same to receive the fume thereof. Or, take onely Olibanum in powder, and strow it upon hot coles, and let the childe sit over the fume thereof. The powder following is commended.

Take Galls, Pomegranat rinde, Goats clawes burnt, red Roses, Acorn cups dryed, Harts horn burnt; make them into powder, strow some upon the fundament, and being reduced in its place, binde on hot Linnen clothes. Give the childe often to eat Marmalade of Quinces, or rosted Quince, or warden with Cinamom and Sugar. Let the childes legs and thighs be kept close together for fear of coming forth again.

If the childe be often provoked to go to stool, and can expel, or void little or nothing, then that disease is called Tenasmus, and may be thus cured.

Take a handful of Garden Cresses, and half an ounce of Cumin seed, bruise them and fry them in Butter, then lay it hot to the belly, and make a fume below with Turpentine and Pitch, and let the child sit long upon a board of Cedar or Juniper, as hot as may be.

Chap. 25
Of the Stone, and difficulty of making water.

Among all those diseases that happen to children, these two are not the least dangerous. The stone in the bladder is most frequent in children, for with the stone in the Kidneys they are seldom troubled; as on the contrary old men are most frequently troubled with stone in the kidneys.

The cause.

The stone in children is ingendred, or bred from the milk they suck, which if it be impure and corrupt, doth not onely cause the stone, but many other diseases: or it may come from a grosse dyet whereby tough humours are bred, especially in such as have weak stomacks and hot kidneys.

The urine in children may be stopt from some stone bred, or breeding, or from some thick and slimy humours stopping those parts, (or children that eat muchhave much crudities, and are subject to the stone,) or from winde: or it may proceed from the ill quality of the urine, as when it is too hot, sharp, or pricking, so that the childe is afraid to pisse, because of the pain it feels when the water comes away: or the abundance of urine in the bladder may stop the urine, for thereby the bladder is over-charged, so that the Fibres thereof being over stretched, cannot draw themselves together to expel the urine, as it happen to those that have kept their water too long.

The signs.

The stone in the bladder in children is thus known. They make water with pain, and sometimes by drops, yea many times the urine is altogether suppressed. When they do void urine, it is sometimes clear as water, sometimes white as milk, or whey, sometimes bloody, and sometimes gravelly, or sand appeareth therein: more-sometimes they feel an itching in their yard, from whence they often put their hands to scratch it.

The Prognosticks.

The stone in the bladders of Children is not to be sleighted; for although it doth not suddenly kill them, yet if it be not in some time cured, it proves dangerous, and cannot be cured except by cutting. And truly there is much danger in cutting them, for if the stones be great, not only children but also persons of years die therewith. Suppression of urine in children is dangerous, especially if it proceed from the stone in the bladder.

The cure.

For the cure all good means are to be used to prevent the breeding of the stone. Therefore let not the stomach be filled too much with food, and let both nurse and child avoid all grosse thick, and tough meats. Let the belly be alwayes kept loose with sirup of Roses solutive, Caffia, &c. Make a bath of the decoction of Mallowes, Marshmallowes, Pellitory of the wall, Parsly, Dill, Linseed, and Fenegreek; bath the child therewith: and after bathing let the places about the bladder be anointed with oyntment of Marshmallowes, oy of white Lillies and oyl of Scorpions, of each a like quantity mixed together. And aftewards apply a pultis made with green Pellitory of the wall, boyled in oyl of white Lillies, or oyl of Camomil. Give the child a scruple or two of the powder of magister of crabs eyes, or of Amber, or Goats blood prepared with Parsly water: or two or three drops of the spirit of Vitriol, or 4. or 5. drops of oyl of Crabs eyes in the same water; or give morning and evening a spoonful or two of Saxifrage, of Sampier water: or you may give half a spoonful of sirup of Marshmallowes morning and evning to the child in posset drink.

It will also be profitable to give a scruple or more of Cipresse Turpentine.

If the child be of any bigness give it this following.

Take oyl of sweet Almonds newly drawn one ounce and a half, Pellitory, or Saxifrage water one ounce, juyce of Lemons a drach. make a potion, and give in a morning fasting.

It is necessary that children be caused often to pisse, especially when they awake, as also when they are change. And being of any bignesse let them make water before and after they have eaten. If it come from sharpnesse of the urine, or heat thereof, then let the Nurse use a good dyet, and cool broths, or cool possets for to temper the heat of her blood. And if need require let her be let blood, and purged with 3. or 4. ounces of sirup of Roses, or with two ounces of Manna taken in posset drink.

Chap. 26
Of pissing in bed.

This disease is frequent with young children, and that because of weaknesse of the retentive faculty of the reins and bladder, or from debility, weaknesse of the Sphincter muscle of the bladder, and also because they abound with much moisture. Sometimes the stone in the bladder doth hurt the Sphincter muscle, that the bladder cannot shut, nor well containe the urine.

The signs.

The signs are manifest, for the child cannot hold its water night nor day, but especially it comes from them on their sleep.

The Prognosticks.

This disease although it be not mortal yet it is very troublesome, and if not cured in time, it continues (in many) till death. If it proceed from the stone, it cannot be cured until the stone be taken away. This disease is cured in many when they come to grown years without any means.

The cure.

Let the Nurses dyet be hot and dry. The child must drink but little, and let the belly of it be kept loose, for hereby they pisse lesse.

The Wesand of a Cock in powder, is commended, also the stone of a Hedghod in powder; if a scruple or more of either be taken morning and evening in Plantain water. The bladder of a bull, or Goat dryed, and in powder, is good to be used as before: or give the powder of Goats clawes in Pap, or milk. This following powder is commended.

Take a Hogs bladder, or Botes, or sheep bladder dryed, the stones of a Hare, and the Wesand of a Cock dryed, of each half a drachme, Acorn cups two scruples, Nep and Mace of each of scruple; make all into a powder, and give hereof a scruple, or half a drachme in the distilled water of Oaken leaves; or give ten grains, or a scruple of Acorn cups in powder, morning and evening in Plantain, or Oaken leafe water.


Take of the distilled water of Mirtles three ounces, Conserve of Roses half an ounce, sirup of dry Roses, one ounce, mix them together, and give the child often of it being first shaken together.

Let the place about the bladder be anointed with oyl of Costus, oyl of Orris, or such like: or make a Bath of Brimstone, Nitre, and the leaves of Oak, and use it to the back and place about the bladder warm.

If the childe be of some reasonable growth, make a plate of lead with holes therein, and lay it to his back; let it lye on for a moneth or two.

Chap. 27
Of the disease called St. Anthonies fire, or wilde fire,
and also of Burning and scalding.

This disease is a great heat and rednesse that disperseth it self over the upper most part of the body; and it is twofold, either onely with heat and rednesse; or with inflammation, heat and small pimples, and very painful. This the Vulgar call the Shingles.

Others are troubled with this disease as well as children.

The cause.

It is caused of thin and hot blood, or of blood mingled with Choler.

The signs.

The signs are manifest, for there is a rednesse upon the outward skin, very hot and angry, and many timesdoth flash aborad, if it be not prevented by the use of means.

The Prognosticks.

Although many have this disease without danger, yet the cure hereof must not be neglected, least a worse disease follow. For as *Hippocrates saith, if an Erisipelas being outward, be returned inwards, it is evil; but if on the contrary, if being inward it be turned outwards it is a good sign. *Hip. Aph. sect. 6.25.

If strong repercussive, or repelling means be used in the beginning of the disease, it is dangerous least the humour strike inward, and so indanger the life of the party.

If this disease appear in the head, it is more dangerous then in other parts; because if the matter passe to the membranes of the brain, it cause a Frenzie, if to the muscles of the neck, the Quinzie.

The Cure.

First of all great care must be had to use such inward means as may expel the matter outward: as give the child a scruple of London Treacle, or five grains of the powder of Crabs clawes in Carduus water. Then use outward means, as, take of Plantain water, Rosewater, Lettice and Houfleek water, of each one ounce, Vinegar half an ounce, mix them together, and wet Linnen clouts therein, and apply it a little warm, so oft as it dryeth up let it be wet again in the same, and applyed.


Take of Galens cooling oyntment one ounce and a half, oyl of Roses two ounces, of the oyment called Populeon one ounce, the juice of Plantain and Nightshade, of each half an ounce, the white of two or three eggs beaten; mix them together, and anoint with it. See more in my book called Help for the Poor, Pag. 14. and 15.

Against Burning or Scalding.

See my Help for the Poor, page 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6. where you have many easie and safe medicines.

Chap. 28
Of Fretting, Chafing, or Galling of the
Skin in the Groyns.

The cause.

Children are much troubled with the skin going off in their groins and thighs; which is caused by reason of the sharpnesse of their urine, especially if they be not often changed with fresh linnen.

The signs.

The signs are apparent, for the skin is raw, and the child very unquiet therewith.

The Prognosticks.

This disease is not hard to cure, yet because it causeth pain, and brings watchings to the childe, if it be not taken in time it causes ulceration in those parts.

The cure.

The Linnen of the child must be often changed, lest by the wetnesse thereof the disease be made worse. Wash the thighes and buttocks with Plantain water, with Rose, or Nightshade water, or make a decoction with Plaintain, Shepheards-purse, Horsetail, and Knotgrasse, and bathe the place therewith. Or, anoint it with a little Capons grease, and lay a Linnen cloth to it; or anoint it with Pomatum, or strow on it the powder of a post, or any old wood that is wormeaten, or meal dust, or Bean flower; or else,

A powder.

Take red Roses and Orris root,of each a quarter of an ounce; beat them into powder, and use as before, by strowing it upon the raw places.


Last Updated on 03/02/24