This timeline lists prominent names, accomplishments, and events in the history of newborn medicine. There is no central organizing principle except for some relationship to the care of fetuses and neonates. Occasionally, events are included from mainstream medicine or science if they have a significant impact on the work of caregivers for infants.
Many thanks to Dr. Tonse N. K. Raju and Drs. Thijs Gras, who reviewed the timeline for accuracy and contributed many valuable additions to the timeline.
Note: The dates on the timeline have been gleaned from a variety of sources and are correct to the best of our knowledge, but you should always refer to primary sources for academic purposes. Corrections and suggestions are always welcome. Please send email about this timeline to firstname.lastname@example.org.
|Oldest reference to Caesarean section (Roman Law of Numa Pompilius)
|Soranus of Ephesus
|Greek physician, practiced in Rome, wrote on midwifery and newborn care, influential into the 15th century
|Marble cradle for foundlings at Trèves
|Hospital for foundlings, Pope Innocent III
|Handbooks for midwives, based on translations of Soranus
|Establishment of Bills of Mortality
|Incubator for his prematurely born son, who survived and became a renowned scientist (Rapallo, Italy)
|Invention of obstetric forceps
|Analysis and publication of Bills of Mortality
|Royal edict creates l'Hôpital des Enfants-Trouvés
|First report of clinical entity now known as Hirschsprung's Disease
|First case report of duodenal atresia
|Opening of the Foundling Hospital, London
|First publication of correct average birthweight and length
|Opening of the Dispensary for the Infant Poor, London
|First use of oxygen (O2) in newborns
|Jean Baptiste Thimotee Baumes
|Treatise on Neonatal Jaundice at the University of Paris, won prize, subsequently published and widely read
|First description of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis of infancy
|Opening of the l'Hospice des Enfants-Trouvés at the Maternité, Paris (later known as l'Hospice des Enfants-Assistés)
|First description of Transposition of the Great Vessels
|Opening of the Hôpital des Enfants-Malades in Paris, first children's hospital
|Published description of hydrocephalus in infants
|First successful surgical closure of omphalocele
|Use of le Tour d'abandon (tower of desertion) in France.
|Founding of Paris Maternité
|First public demonstration of fetal heart rate auscultation
|First description of endotracheal intubation for newborn resuscitation
|First known use of "warming tub" (Wärmewanne) St Petersburg
|Birth registration mandatory in England
|First description of prune-belly syndrome
|First use of ether anesthesia in obstetrics
|Jacques Francois Edouard Hervieux
|Thesis on neonatal jaundice based on 45 cases including 44 autopsies,described staining of the brain in 31 cases.
|First report of gavage feedings for infants
|Founding of Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, the first children's hospital in English-speaking countries
|Founding of first American children's hospitals: New York Nursing and Child Hospital, and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
|First published description of incubator in western literature
|Cerebral palsy (CP) described and linked to birth trauma and asphyxia
|Beginning of the Infant Welfare Movement
|First pathoanatomic description of kernicterus. Mentioned staining of basal ganglia.
|Adaptation of poultry incubator to create the Tarnier-Martin Couveuse (incubator)
|AgNO3 for ophthalmia neonatorum
|Introduction of "couveuse" (Tarnier-Martin closed incubator, thermisphon) at Paris Maternité
|Trials of the "permanent water bath" for prematures, Dresden
|Heat treatment of milk for 2 hrs at 100 degrees C. for artificial feeding
|Introduction of Tarnier-Auvard single-infant incubator (warm water in stoneware containers), Paris Maternité
|First description of pyloric stenosis
|First description of association of ventribular septal defect, right ventricular infundibular stenosis, aortic valve overriding the right ventricle, and right ventricular hypertrophy (now known as Tetralogy of Fallot, or TOF)
|Thermoregulated infant incubator based on an egg incubator, made of wood.
|First display to a paying public of.a living premature baby in an infant incubator, Marsille.
|First description in literature of oxygen (O2) for premature or cyanotic infants (used by Tarnier in 1889)
|Establishment of the "Infant Incubator Charity" (Oeuvre Maternelle des Couveuses d'Entants) in Nice (later in Paris and other European cities).
|First documented use of oxygen for premature or cyanotic infants
|Rotch portable incubator, Boston
|Thermoregulated infant incubator made of metal.
|Establishment of the "Consultations de Nourrissons"
|Pavilion of Weaklings at the Paris Maternité (first specialized neonatal intensive care unit)
|Alexandre Lion opens his first permanent storefront for Maternité Lion in Nice, France.
|Incubator pavilion with living babies during the International Exhibition, Lyon (first incubator pavilion at an international/world exhibition).
|C. W. Townsend
|Description of "hemorrhagic disease of the newborn"
|First "milk depots"
|Incubator pavilion with living babies during the World Exhibition in Amsterdam.
|Opening of the Oeuvre Maternelle de Couveuses d'Enfants, Paris
|Incubator baby exhibit at the Berliner Gewerbe-Ausstellung. Used Lion incubators manufactured under license by Paul Altmann, Berlin.
|Display of an infant incubator during the Tennessee Centential and International Exhibition in Nashville.
|Establishment of an Incubator Institute in New York.
|Incubator baby sideshow at Victorian Era Exhibition at Earl's Court, London
|Described congenital heart disease association of ventricular septal defect (VSD), pulmonary hypertension, left to right shunt, and overriding aortic valve, this became known as Eisenmenger's Complex
|Incubator baby sideshow at Trans-Mississippi Exposition, Omaha, Nebraska
|Joseph B. DeLee
|First incubator station in the United States at Chicago Lying-In Hospital
|Joseph B. DeLee
|Chicago Tribune describes the first transport incubator for infants ("hand ambulance") at the Chicago Lying-In Hospital
|First successful treatment of omphalocele by painting sac with alcohol
|Publication of "Le Nourrisson" [The Nursling] in France
|Opening of the incubator station at the Chicago Lying-In Hospital
|Incubator baby sideshow at the World Exhibition, Paris
|Incubator baby sideshow at Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, New York
|Heidenhain or Aue
|First successful repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia
|Incubator baby sideshow at Coney Island
|Christian Georg Schmorl
|Landmark paper based on 280 autopsies of neonates, including 120 with jaundice. Coined the term "kernicterus."
|Incubator baby sideshow at Louisiana Purchase Exposition and World's Fair, St. Louis
|Incubator baby sideshow at Lewis and Clark Exhibition, Portland, Oregon
|Publication of "The Nursling" [Le Nourrisson] in England, translation by Maloney
|First transfusion for hemorrhagic disease of the newborn
|Chicago Board of Health
|Chicago mandates pasteurization of milk, other cities in the U.S. followed.
|Description of "inborn errors of metabolism" and their inheritance according to Mendel's Laws
|Founding of the Kaiserin Auguste Victoria Haus, Berlin, center for teaching and research in the prevention of newborn mortality
|Electrically heated, water-jacketed open infant bed
|"Baby Tents of Chicago"
|Device for collection of blood in newborns
|First successful treatment of pyloric stenosis with pyloromyotomy
|Transthoracic ligation of tracheoesophageal fistula
|Incubator unit at Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago
|Incubator baby sideshow at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco
|First US birth registry
|Intravenous infusions and blood collection from the longitudinal sinus
|First successful surgical repair of congenital duodenal atresia
|Transfusion through the umbilical vein for hemorrhagic disease of the newborn
|Himself a premature infant at birth, defined preterm as those with a birthweight of less than 2500 grams.
|J. P. Crozier
|Published the Disease of Infants and Children which became Griffith and Mitchell's Pediatrics, then Mitchell and Nelson's Pediatrics, then in 1954 became Waldo E. Nelson's Pediatrics.
|Births in hospitals increase from 5% to 60% in large US cities
|Julius Hess and Evelyn C. Lundeen
|Premature Infant Station opened at Sarah Morris Hospital, Chicago, first dedicated facility for care of prematures in the US
|Publication of "Premature and Congenitally Diseased Infants," first American textbook on prematurity
|First transport incubator for newborns
|First exchange transfusion for erythroblastosis fetalis
|Discovery of Penicillin
|U. S. National Vital Statistics System
|Gestational age was included in the U. S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth.
|Founding of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
|Diamond, Blackfan, Batty
|Hydrops fetalis, icterus gravis, and anemia of the newborn unified as "erythroblastosis fetalis"
|Founding of the American Board of Pediatrics for specialty certification
|Louis W. Sauer
|First use of pertussis vaccine in the United States
|First use of "Hess Oxygen Box"
|Incubator baby sideshow at Century of Progress International Exhibition, Chicago
|Modified electrically heated incubator for O2 administration
|Discovery of phenylketonuria (PKU)
|First dedicated transport vehicle for newborns, Chicago
|American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) adopts Arvo Yllpö's definition of prematurity as BW < 2500 gm.
|Clinical use of sulfa drugs
|Publication of "Atlas of Congenital Heart Disease"
|Discovery of "Koagulations Vitamin" (Vitamin K)
|W. W. Waddell
|Vitamin K treatment of coagulation abnormalities of the newborn
|Design of modern infant incubator (prototype of Isolette) in Philadelphia
|Meconium ileus linked to cystic fibrosis
|Gross and Hubbard
|Successful ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), Boston
|Clinical description of "dysmaturity" related to placental dysfunction
|Incubator baby sideshow at New York World's Fair
|A. Cournand and D. Richard
|Cardiac catheterization for diagnosis of congenital heart disease
|Karl Landsteiner and Philip Levine
|Discovery of the Rh factor
|Infant cataracts during the rubella epidemic, established linkage between maternal rubella infections and congenital rubella syndrome
|First clinical recognition of retrolental fibroplasia (RLF) (later renamed Retinopathy of Prematurity, or ROP)
|First successful primary anastomosis of tracheoesophageal fistula
|Florey and Chain
|First clinical use of Penicillin.
|First published description of Retrolental Fibroplasia (RLF).
|Louis K. Diamond
|Link established between Rh isoimmunization and erythroblastosis fetalis
|Alfred Blalock & Helen Taussig
|First "blue baby" operation for Tetralogy of Fallot (Blalock-Taussig or BT shunt)
|Miller and Olney
|Angiocardiography for infants with congenital heart disease
|Haight & Towsley
|Successful repair of esophageal atresia
|Description of "malignant enteritis of the first three months of life"
|Craaford and Nylin
|Successful surgical repair of Coarctation of the Aorta described
|Sir Joseph Barcroft
|Publishes "Researches on Pre-Natal Life." The first book on fetal-maternal and neonatal physiology.
|Louis K. Diamond
|Exchange transfusion via umbilical vein as treatment for erythroblastosis fetalis
|Clement A. Smith
|Publication of "The Physiology of the Newborn Infant," first American textbook of neonatology
|First diagnosis of Hirschsprung's Disease in neonates
|Hill-Burton Act, federal aid for construction of hospital facilities
|First randomized controlled trial in humans (efficacy of streptomycin for tuberculosis, England).
|Caldeyro-Barcia and H. Alvarez
|The first recording of intrauterine pressure in a woman on June 10th, 1947 in Montevideo, Uruguay.
|Publication of "Congenital Malformations of the Heart"
|First report of polyethylene catheters used for exchange transfusion through the umbilical vein
|Modern Isolette (based on Chapple Incubator) first shown publicly
|World Health Organization
|WHO defines prematurity as BW < 2500 gm
|Committee on Fetus and Newborn, AAP
|First edition of "Standards and Recommendations for Hospital Care of Newborns" published.
|First use of the term "perinatal"
|New York Department of Health
|Establishment of the New York Premature Infant Transport Service
|Use of DES to prevent miscarriage
|W. L. Bradford, Elizabeth Day, F. C. Morton
|Triple vaccine for Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DPT vaccine)
|Birthweight and GA added to Standard Certificate of Live Birth in USA
|Cornell offers Institutes on Premature Infant Care for physicians and nurses
|Thirsting and starving of premature infants
|World Health Organization
|WHO reaffirms prematurity as BW < 2500 gm but adds that GA < 37 weeks can be used if birthweight is unavailable.
|Bloxsom Air Lock ventilator for respiratory support is introduced.
|Publishes the landmark paper on the chemical composition of newly born mammals, followed by series of studies on fetal and neonatal metabolism.
|Retrolental fibroplasia (RLF) aka ROP is first linked to O2 use
|Describes a scoring system for assessment of infants at birth, now known as the Apgar Score.
|Schmid & Quaiser
|First clear description in the English literature of necrotizing entercolitis (NEC) as distinct clinical entity
|Initial trial, with some procedural defects, that linked excessive O2 to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).
|Watson & Crick
|Correct double-helical structure of DNA described in the journal Nature
|Description of the natural history of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and correlation with X-rays
|Detergent mist (Alevaire) for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
|Love & Tillery
|Sternal traction for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
|First neonatal surgical unit, Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool
|Invention of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV)
|Invention of AMBU Bag
|Kinsey, Silverman, and others
|Controlled trial: excessive O2 leads to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Cooperative trial published by Kinsey in 1955. First randomized controlled trial in newborns.
|Dionne quintuplets are a national sensation.
|Clinical linkage between small term infant and placental insufficiency
|Clinical description of "postmature" infant
|National randomized trial of inactivated polio vaccine
|Increase in kernicterus due to use of prophylactic sulfa drugs
|Controlled trial: withholding fluid in immediate postnatal period not beneficial
|Controlled trial: detergent mist not beneficial
|Controlled trial: sulfa drugs increase risk of kernicterus
|Dobbs, Cremer, Ward
|Serendipitous observation of effect of sunlight on indirect bilirubin level
|Controlled trial: Bloxsom air lock is ineffective
|Tjio and Albert Levan
|First publication of correct number of human chromosomes (46)
|Gray-Baby Syndrome due to use of prophylactic chloramphenicol
|Development of attenuated virus polio vaccine (approved for general use in 1963)
|Commercial production of winged "scalp vein" needles for neonates
|Introduction of Thalidomide in Europe
|Controlled trial: hypothermia leads to decreased survival
|Availability of modern intracatheter in several sizes
|First air transport of newborn, Denver, Colorado (DC-3)
|First description of light effect on bilirubin levels, Lancet
|Publishes a paper using "pulsed ultrasound" in 200 patients with "abdominal masses" many of whom had gynecological conditions and some were pregnant. This is considered the birth of fetal ultrasound testing.
|Mary Ellen Avery and Jere Mead
|Surfactant deficiency identified as the cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
|Trisomy 21 identified in Down's Syndrome
|Intravenous (IV) fluids for infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
|First report of umbilical artery catheterization for blood gas sampling
|Glucose and bicarbonate drip for infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), later known as the Usher Regimen
|Takes over an existing premature baby unit to develop a neonatal ICU at Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut.
|First use of terms "neonatologist" and "neonatology" in textbook (Diseases of the Newborn, Saunders, 1960)
|Birth defects linked to Thalidomide
|First successful ventilation of a premature infant with RDS in the U.S. (Reported in the Transactions of the SPR, Annual Meeting, May 8-10, 1962). According to an article by Dr. Stahlman in 1980, there may have been earlier survivors in the UK, Sweden, or South Africa.
|World Health Organization
|WHO distinguishes low-birth-weight from prematurity
|Maria Delivoria-Papadopoulos and Paul Swyer
|Early successful ventilation of a premature infant with RDS. This has sometimes been referred to as the first success in the U.S. but it was preceded by Dr. Stahlman in October 1961.
|First neonatal surgical intensive care unit in the USA at Children's Hospital in Philadelphia
|Fetal scalp blood sampling for pH
|Weller and Neva; Parkman, Buescher, and Artenstein
|Isolation of the Rubella virus
|Introduction of Rhogam
|First report of intrauterine fetal transfusion
|Newborn screening test for phenylketonuria (PKU)
|Widely reported news item
|Patrick Bouvier Kennedy dies of respiratory distress syndrome, GA 34 weeks, BW 2100 grams. This led to increased public awareness of prematurity and its consequences, with increased funding for research for pediatric disorders.
|Lula O. Lubchenco
|Standard tables of weights, lengths, and head circumferences by gestational age based on Denver data. Introduction of concepts of appropriate, large, and small for gestational age, now considered to be fundamental diagnostic and prognostic categories (AGA, LGA and SGA).
|Physiologic baffle repair for Transposition of the Great Vessels (Mustard Procedure)
|First published description of intrauterine transfusion of the fetus for hemolytic disease
|Rubella epidemic in USA
|Successful ventilation of a preterm infant with hyaline membrane disease (Assisted ventilation in terminal hyaline membrane disease. Arch. Dis. Child., 39:481-484, 1964)
|Epsom salt enemas used as therapy for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
|First report of Group B streptococcus in neonatal sepsis
|University of Colorado
|First pediatric nurse practioner (PNP) training program.
|Usher et al
|Physical characteristics for assessment of gestational age
|Foreshadowing of regionalization, first newborn with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) transferred to California University Hospital, San Francisco
|Rashkind and Miller
|Technique of atrial septostomy developed (became rescue therapy for newborns with Transposition of the Great Vessels)
|Harry M. Meyer, Paul D. Parkman, Theodore C. Panos
|Live attenuated rubella vaccine
|Prevention of maternal Rh sensitization (and erythroblastosis fetalis) by anti-Rh antibody (RhoGam)
|Northway, Rosan & Porter
|Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BDP) described
|First helicopter transport of newborn, Peoria, Illinois
|Treatment of hydrocephalus with Holter Valve
|Hon and Quillen
|Description of three types of fetal heart rate decelerations
|First heart transplant in newborn, Brooklyn, New York
|Fontan procedure for surgical palliation of functional single ventricle
|Commercial availability of fetal heart rate monitors
|Neurological assessment of gestational age
|Canadian Department of National Health and Welfare
|Published guidelines for the transportation of a newborn or mother to tertiary hospitals
|Wilmore & Dudtrick
|First published report of total intravenous nutrition of newborn (TPN)
|Du and Oliver
|First description of use of an open radiant warmer for newborns.
|Early regionalization, first transport of a pregnant woman in preterm labor from one city to another
|Rubella vaccine released (live attenuated virus )
|Controlled trial: phototherapy treatment of hyperbilirubinemia
|First commercial pediatric ventilator, Bourns LS-104. This was a piston-driven volume ventilator and subsequently replaced by pressure-limited ventilators such as the Baby Bird and the Bourns BP-200.
|Baby Bird, first time-cycled pressure-limited ventilator for infants
|Stern, Outerbridge, Shepard, and Stahlman
|Introduce continuous negative pressure ventilator; several clinical trials were conducted.
|Publication of standardized techniques for umbilical artery catheterization
|Gestational age scoring method based on combined physical and neurological characteristics
|First report of xenon arc photocoagulation for ROP
|Use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
|Gluck et al
|Assessment of "pulmonary maturity" by amniocentesis to measure lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio (L/S ratio)
|American Medical Association
|Policy statement on regionalization of perinatal care, later endorsed by the AAP.
|Shannon et al
|Description of hyperoxia test for cyanotic congenital heart disease
|Intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) - Baby Bird ventilator
|Controlled trial: antenatal glucocorticoids for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
|Umbilical arterial lines enter routine use
|Bourns BP-200 pressure-limited time-cycled infant ventilator
|Jones, Smith, & Ulleland
|Clinical description of the fetal alcohol syndrome
|Transcutaneous PO2 monitoring in newborns
|Klauss & Fanaroff
|Publication of "Care of the High-Risk Neonate," 1st Edition
|Published observation that Indomethacin produces intense and persistent contraction of ductus arteriosus in vivo.
|American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology
|Perinatology subspecialty certification begins (obstetrics)
|Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for infants becomes routine
|George Gregory et al
|Report that intubation and suctioning below the vocal cords of infants stained with meconium reduces symptoms of respiratory failure due to meconium aspiration syndrome.
|American Board of Pediatrics
|Neonatology subspecialty certification begins (pediatrics)
|Olley and Coceani
|Prostaglandin E can maintain patency of ductus arteriosus
|First use of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in infants
|Anderson, Nicholson, & Heird
|Controlled trial: total parenteral nutrition in prematures
|First successful arterial switch operation for Transposition of the Great Vessels (TGV)
|Papile et al
|Reports the origin and evolution of intracranial hemorrhage in 46 consecutively studied infants < 1500 g, and proposes a classification scheme.
|Introduction of the Sechrist IV-100B infant ventilator, had a microprocessor to simplify use by eliminating manual calculations and support a digital display
|Transcutaneous PCO2 monitoring in newborns
|Controlled trial: indomethacin treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants
|Simplified gestational age scoring system (modified Dubowitz)
|FDA approval of ritodrine hydrochloride for treatment of premature labor.
|T. Fujiwara et al
|First report of intratracheal administration of bovine surfactant in 10 preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome that showed dramatic improvement.
|Description of high frequency ventilation
|Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in NICU graduates due to transfusions
|Randomized clinical trials in infants with respiratory distress syndrome using synthetic and animal-derived surfactant preparations were launched, eventually demonstrating the superiority of the latter.
|Endotracheal administration of epinephrine for resuscitation
|Successful fetal surgery for obstructive uropathy. Placement of a fetal urinary catheter (vesicoamniotic shunt) for posterior urethral valves.
|"Baby Doe" case, Trisomy 21 with esophageal atresia
|Adverse effects of benzyl alcohol
|Certification for neonatal nurse practitioners begins
|American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology
|AAP and ACOG publish "Guidelines in Perinatal Care"
|Intravenous vitamin E (E-Ferol) causes ascites, liver and renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and death in low birth weight infants
|Cranial ultrasound of newborn enters routine clinical practice.
|International Committee for ROP Classification
|Eleven scientists from 23 countries developed a milestone document on the classification of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), simultaneously published around the world in nearly a dozen journals.
|"Baby Fae," first cross-species heart transplant in newborn at Loma Linda University Medical Center
|Controlled trial: Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in infants with respiratory failure
|Use of prophylactic penicillin reduces mortality of infants with sickle cell anemia, provides rationale for neonatal screening for hemoglobinopathies
|Controlled trial: cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)
|David Smith and Porter Anderson
|Polysaccharide vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB vaccine)
|"Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act"
|American Academy of Pediatrics
|AAP Publishes "Guidelines for Air and Ground Transport of Pediatric Patients"
|Pulse oximetry in newborns
|American Academy of Pediatrics, American Heart Association
|Neonatal resuscitation training program launched by AAP and AHA
|Cryotherapy for ROP Cooperative Group and the National Eye Institute
|First report of successful treatment of advanced stages of ROP using cryotherapy
|Successful open fetal surgery for congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
|First report of partial liquid ventilation in prematures
|Successful fetal resection of congenital cystic adenomatous malformation of the lung (CCAM).
|High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) appears in commercial products
|U. S. Food and Drug Administration
|FDA approval of surfactant therapy for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
|New Ballard Score (NBS) for gestational age, extended for extremely premature infants <26 weeks gestation
|Controlled trial: laser vs. cryotherapy for retinopahy of prematurity (ROP)
|"Back to Sleep" campaign begins, reduces incidence of SIDS by 2/3rds by 1997.
|Successful open fetal surgery for resection of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT).
|American Academy of Pediatrics
|AAP guidelines for chemoprophylaxis of Group B Streptococcus
|American Academy of Pediatrics
|AAP recommends supine sleeping position for infants, followed by 30-40% reduction in incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
|American Academy of Pediatrics
|AAP Publishes "Guidelines for Air and Ground Transport of Neonatal and Pediatric Patients"
|National Institutes of Health-Funded Studies
|Perinatal AIDS Clincial Trials Group Protocol 076 published, treatment of mothers with zidovudine reduces perinatal transmission of HIV to infants.
|NIH-sponsored clinical trial at UCSF for open repair of fetus with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American Academy of Pediatrics
|Recommendations for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening and chemoprophylaxis
|Successful fetoscopic temporary tracheal occlusion for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).
|Controlled trial: inhaled nitric oxide for pulmonary hypertension in the newborn
|Free fetal DNA demonstrated in maternal blood, basis for new methods of non-invasive screening for fetal genetic defects
|U. S. Food and Drug Administration
|FDA approval of inhaled nitric oxide for term and near-term (>34 weeks gestation) neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension
|Successful fetoscopic laser treatment of a single A-V communication in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.
|American Academy of Pediatrics
|AAP Statement on Use of Inhaled Nitric Oxide
|Francis S. Collins and J. Craig Venter
|Initial mapping of human genome complete
|NIH-sponsored clinical trial for temporary tracheal occusion of fetuses with severe left congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).
|National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
|The phrase "late preterm" enters medical lexicon, replacing the unprecise "near-term."
|Mild therapeutic hypothermia for perinatal asphyxia is recommended as the standard of care
|Reports fetal exposure to MgSO4 reduces cerebral palsy rates. Later, an NIH-sponsored controlled trial confirms the findings.
|National Institutes of Health
|An NIH-funded study shows fetal repair of myelo-meningocele defect improves neurologic outcomes.
|Sequenom and Illumina companies
|Cell-free fetal DNA testing on maternal blood available as an alternative to amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.
|Longitudinal cohort studies report adult outcomes of those born preterm.
|American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology
|Recommends the use of antenatal steroid in women with threatened late preterm birth.
- Giuseppe Liceti, a surgeon working in Rapallo (near Genoa); his son was born on the 3rd of October 1577 and named ‘Fortunio.’