L’Esposizione Generale Italiana del 1898
The Esposizione Generale Italiana of 1898 was held in Torino (Turin), Italy from April to October to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Albertine Statute, which was the fundamental statute of united Italty from 1861 until 1948. King Umberto I of Italy attended the opening ceremony.
The exhibition had about 8,000 exhibitors along with 43 national or international congresses, as well as displays by 147 Italian painters, architects, and sculptors in the Fine Arts Division. There were about three and a half million visitors to the exhibition. Foreign companies were only allowed in the Electricity Gallery or in the Gallery del Lavoro. [Source: Wikipedia]
Dr. Alexandre Lion had a large exhibit of incubators with live babies (“bambini vivi”) in a dedicated building.
A comprehensive booklet about the incubators and the care and feeding of the babies was distributed to visitors. It contained quite a lot of detailed information about the survival rates, feedings, and the workings of the Lion Incubator. (Scan of booklet provided by Drs.Thijs Gras, the complete booklet is available as a PDF.)
A map of the exhibition can be seen below.
- Dr. Alexandre Lion
- The Lion Incubator
- Oeuvre Maternelle des Couveuses d’Enfants, Paris
- Oeuvre Maternelle des Couveuses d’Enfants, New York
- Oeuvre Maternelle des Couveuses d’Enfants, Barcelona
- La Maternité “Lion de Nice” pour Enfants Nés Avant Terme ou Débiles, by Dr. Ciaudo, 1895.
- Les Couveuses pour Enfants, Gazette Médicale de Paris, 1900
- Couveuses d’Enfants, La Maternité Lion, Paris, La Patrie, 1897
- Baby Incubators, The Strand Magazine, 1896, by James Walter Smith
- Human Infant Incubation: A True Fairy-Tale of Modern Science from Leslie’s Weekly, 1897
- The Saving of Human Life, Maternité Lion in NYC, The Literary Digest, 1898
- Immature Infants in France, from The Lancet, January 16, 1897, page 196.
- Alexandre Lion’s Incubator Charities in Europe (1894–1898) (The Embryo Project)
- Lion Incubators, Literary Digest, 1898
- Oeuvre Maternelle des Couveuses d’Enfants , Paris Institute, Booklet Version #1 (appears to be ~1896)
- Oeuvre Maternelle des Couveuses d’Enfants , Paris Institute, Booklet Version #2 (appears to be ~1901)
- Pamphlet from Alexander Lion’s exhibit at the 1898 exhibition in Torino, Italy. (PDF supplied by Dr. Thijs Gras, Amsterdam)
- Maternité Lion at the Berliner Gewerbeausstellung, 1896
- Maternité Lion at the Bordeaux Exposition of 1895.
- Maternité Lion at the Lyon Exposition Universelle – Le Monde Illustré, 1894
- Maternite Lion at the Ghent Provincial Exposition of 1899
- Maternité Lion at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900
- Maternite Lion at the Bordeaux International Maritime Exposition of 1907
- Maternité Lion at the Exposition Internationale de l’Est de la France, Nancy, France, 1909
- Maternité Lion at the Lyon Exposition Universelle et Coloniale, 1894
- Maternité Lion at the Turin L’Esposizione Generale Italiana, 1898
- Maternité Lion at the Brussels Exposition Universelle et Internationale, 1910
- Maternité Lion at the Marseille Exposition Internationale d’Électricité, 1908
- Maternité Lion at the Esposizione Generale Italiana of 1898, Turin, Italy
- Maternite Lion at the Exposition du Centre de la France, Clermont-Ferrand, 1910
- Maternité Lion at the Exposition National Suisse, Geneva, Switzerland, 1896
- Maternité Lion at the Amsterdam World Exposition, 1895
- Maternité Lion at the Brussels International Exposition, 1897