Exposition Universelle et Internationale de Bruxelles, 1910
The Brussels Universal and International Exposition opened on April 23, 1910 and closed on November 7. 1910. It covered 220 acres, the number of visitors was said to be 13,000,000, and like most of these Expositions, it lost money. The same site was later used for the Brussels “Expo ’58” Worlds Fair. There was a big fire on August 14 and 15 which gutted several pavilions. These were rapidly rebuilt, and the organizers were able to use this event to promote the exhibition.
There were evidently at least two incubator exhibits at this exposition – one from Alexandre Lion’s “Oeuvre Maternelle des Couveuses d’Enfants” (which was based in Paris) and the other from M. Ehrlich’s “Institut des Couveuses d’Enfants.” There is little to be found in print about either exhibit, although a few photographs and postcards survive.
I believe the first photo below to be the exhibit of M. Ehrlich, as the name “Institut des Couveuses d’Enfants” and the location matches the cover of a souvenir booklet from his exhibit. This building was located on the Plaine des Attractions, near the “Big Tree.”
The photo and the postcards below appear to be Ehrlich’s paviliion as well, photographed from the other side. The roof profile and the location are consistent with the Ehrlich pavilion.
The photo below is labeled “Pavilion de l’Oeuvre Maternelle des Couveuses d’Enfants” on a Belgian website about the 1910 Exhibition, so it is evidently the exhibit of Dr. Alexandre Lion, who ran similar exhibits at many Worlds Fairs and other expositions around the turn of the century in addition to his permanent storefronts in Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyons, Nice, Brussels, New York, and other cities. (https://belgique-insolite-et-occulte.blogspot.com/2016/10/bruxelles-1910-exposition-universelle.html)
As was his usual practice, Dr. Lion had souvenir postcards made for his exhibit, which are still easy to find on eBay and similar sites.
The photo and postcard below add another element of mystery. but the signage is in English now, and there is a structure to the right of the building that is not seen in the picture above.
Finally, Elmond Cordier, founder of the Institut Puériculture de Bruxelles, also had some kind of presence at the Exposition. He is known to have received a Gold Medal at the Exposition. The family biography states: “A l’Exposition Internationale de Bruxelles toujours en 1910, l’Institut occupa un emplacement dans le groupe III de la section belge et y reçu aussi le diplôme de médaille d’or.” [At the Brussels International Exhibition, still in 1910, the Institute occupied a placement in group III of the Belgian section and also received there the diploma of gold medal.]
A map and overhead panorama of the exhibition can be seen below.
- General Information
- Press Coverage
- La Maternité “Lion de Nice” pour Enfants Nés Avant Terme ou Débiles, by Dr. Ciaudo, 1895.
- Les Couveuses pour Enfants, Gazette Médicale de Paris, 1900
- Couveuses d’Enfants, La Maternité Lion, Paris, La Patrie, 1897
- Paris Letter: An Improved System of Incubators, by O. Jennings, Pediatrics 1:427-428, 1896
- Baby Incubators, The Strand Magazine, 1896, by James Walter Smith
- Human Infant Incubation: A True Fairy-Tale of Modern Science from Leslie’s Weekly, 1897
- The Saving of Human Life, Maternité Lion in NYC, The Literary Digest, 1898
- Immature Infants in France, from The Lancet, January 16, 1897, page 196.
- Alexandre Lion’s Incubator Charities in Europe (1894–1898) (The Embryo Project)
- Maternité Lion Souvenir Booklets
- Oeuvre Maternelle des Couveuses d’Enfants , Paris Institute, Booklet Version #1 (appears to be ~1896)
- Oeuvre Maternelle des Couveuses d’Enfants , Paris Institute, Booklet Version #2 (appears to be ~1901)
- Pamphlet from Alexander Lion’s exhibit at the 1898 exhibition in Torino, Italy. (PDF supplied by Dr. Thijs Gras, Amsterdam)
- Worlds Fairs and Expositions
- Maternité Lion at the Lyon Exposition Universelle et Coloniale, 1894
- Maternité Lion at the Bordeaux Exposition of 1895.
- “La Maternité Lion,” by Louis Énault, Journal of the Bordeaux Exposition, 1895
- Maternité Lion at the Amsterdam World Exposition, 1895
- Maternité Lion at the Berliner Gewerbeausstellung, 1896
- Maternité Lion at the Exposition National Suisse, Geneva, Switzerland, 1896
- Maternité Lion at the Tennessee Centennial Exposition, 1897
- Maternité Lion at the Brussels International Exposition, 1897
- Maternité Lion at the Turin L’Esposizione Generale Italiana, 1898
- Maternite Lion at the Ghent Provincial Exposition of 1899
- Maternité Lion at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900
- Maternité Lion at the Lille Exposition of 1902
- Maternité Lion at the Marseille Colonial Exposition of 1906
- Maternite Lion at the Bordeaux International Maritime Exposition of 1907
- Maternité Lion at the Marseille Exposition Internationale d’Électricité, 1908
- Maternité Lion at the Exposition Internationale de l’Est de la France, Nancy, France, 1909
- Maternité Lion at the Brussels Exposition Universelle et Internationale, 1910
- Maternite Lion at the Exposition du Centre de la France, Clermont-Ferrand, 1910
- Maternité Liion at the Rome International Exposition of 1911
- Maternité Lion at the Turin International Exposition of 1911
- Maternité Lion at the Ghent International Exposition of 1913